Sunday, April 30, 2017

GM Suburban Government Motors Bush Socialism

Parked in my parking structure at University with USA federal license plates. Mystery. What is a Fed car doing on State parking Lot?

Would be happy abode in Hawaii.
Missouri mansion would be worse.

Rain as I dashed home. Did get some sun this afternoon until big black clouds blew in.

Insulin resistance: ‘The biggest medical mistake EVER’ - EHO

I think most of this is old news.


America's biggest powwow! Tens of thousands descend on New Mexico for the Gathering of Nations against backdrop of Dakota Access Pipeline protests

America's biggest powwow! Tens of thousands descend on New Mexico for the Gathering of Nations against backdrop of Dakota Access Pipeline protests


Coffee or tea, stretch martial arts

I converted from coffee to tea the past 4 mornings with great results.
3 cups of black tea + citrus peel instead of 2 cups of espresso.
I feel much better in the morning with better balance and coordination and more energy.  
I walked 14 miles yesterday by accident while reading my phone.  

I ran the same drop coffee experiment in 2003 and got the same benefit without any tea at all.  
Just stopped coffee.  
I don't think coffee is as healthy as industry sponsored studies suggest.
Coffee is the most heavily pesticided chemicalized crop in the SAD Standard American Diet.
Coffee is the largest source of antioxidants in the SAD Standard American Diet.
Better to get antioxidants by walking in the ocean.  
Coffee you must grind your own beans to avoid oxidation, acrylamide, molds, rancidity, etc.
Coffee you should grow your own in Hawaii, and roast the coffee beans yourself.
Then coffee may be ok.
But if SHTF coffee may not be available so better not to get addicted to anything.  

Tea I can feel some benefit, especially green tea, but tea may contain fluorides that are neurotoxins.
Tea is much less shocking to the system immediately as but lasts longer than coffee and feels better all day.
Tea has less caffeine than coffee but lots of other beneficial chemicals.
Citrus peel I can feel some benefit if prepared right a huge blast of additional chemicals including Vitamin C complex. 
I am trying more herbal teas and so far seems ok but lack much experience to say anything.  

I was very sore from extreme stretching this week.
Takes several hours for a good stretch.
I Want to learn martial arts moves like shatter bricks with foot at 6 feet high.  
Working on extreme flexibility, speed, coordination, balance and not brute strength.
Transition from the least flexible person in the world to the most flexible.
Stretch out tendons, move joints in sockets as far as possible.
Cracking spinal column like people snap their fingers.
Did not know that was possible.
Can produce a lot of pain that lasts days not ordinary muscle soreness.  
I had to sleep 12 hours to recover 1 night.
Sleeping on the floor helps - more firm and flat than mattresses and hammocks.
Lets joints fall slowly into a more normal configuration overnight.  
Japanese traditionally sleep on mats I think - I knew a girl who did so in the dorms in USA.
I fold a comforter on top of a sleeping bag to get the right firmness. 
Can move this simple bed into vehicle if SHTF or traveling for vacation.   
Getting up and down off the floor is good exercise for flexibility balance

Saturday, April 29, 2017

Tweet from Joe Russell (@weathergeek312)

Joe Russell (@weathergeek312) tweeted at 10:10 AM on Sat, Apr 29, 2017:
Now a High risk of flash flooding for much of Central and southern Missouri. #flood

Get the official Twitter app at

Northeaat Megalopolis

Re: Weather Hawaii vs Missouri

Spring and fall similar

Honolulu cooler in summer less humidity.

Honolulu much warmer in winter great beach weather.
No slip and fall on ice
Serious danger for elderly
Save heating costs.

Honolulu gets half the rain
And No Tornadoes!
Much better food too.

On Apr 29, 2017 M, "J. C. JOHN

> Today Honolulu about the same as here.

A few days ago we had sun.
Very dark and stormy today looks like tornado

Friday, April 28, 2017

Health articles

Seems good


Welcome to CAPR SD

Welcome to CAPR SD

Horse equestrian

Google and Facebook confirmed as victims of $100m phishing scam - Computer Business Review

Dreamer horse movie via DuckDuckGo for Android

Military veteran Special Plates in Hawaii



Thursday, April 27, 2017

Sun and Lowest tax rate for the retired

If you click on the bottom of the page it talks about the best places to retire including more factors than taxes.
Alaska is the worst state for retirement, as on the attached list.
Hawaii has much better health care, senior services, and of course, weather.

Kiplinger has a more detailed discussion.

I was looking at Mississippi a few years ago the homeland of my Choctaw native American ancestors.
Many Southern States have favorable taxation and low cost of living and mild weather, sun, and beaches.
Probably Mississippi is the lowest overall but very hard to calculate.
A high cost of living in some states wipes out any advantage in low taxation.

Mississippi has some of the cheapest housing in the USA and other costs are very low too.
University is in a small town but amenities of a large city.
Far south so lots of sun.  
Gulf Coast Beaches.

Mississippi has the cheapest property taxes in the nation. 
Seniors qualify for a homestead exemption on the first $75,000 of value.
So buy cheap and pay no property taxes at all.

State Sales Tax
7% state levy. Only two localties, Jackson (1%) and Tupelo (0.25%) add to that.

Income Tax Range
Low: 3% (on less than $5,000 of taxable income)
High: 5% (on more than $10,000 of taxable income)

Social Security
Benefits are not taxed.

Exemptions for Other Retirement Income
Qualified retirement income 
-- including income from IRAs, 401(k)s, 403(b)s, Keoghs, and qualified public and private pension plans 
-- is exempt from state income tax.

Interest income from federal securities and obligations of Mississippi and subdivisions are exempt. 

Railroad Retirement benefits are not taxed.

Exempt from state income tax.

401(k)s and Other Defined-Contribution Employer Retirement Plans
Exempt from state income tax.

Private Pensions
Exempt from state income tax.

Public Pensions
Exempt from state income tax.

Property Taxes
The state offers a homestead exemption of up to $300 for all eligible taxpayers. 
The median property tax on Mississippi's median home value of $104,000 is $854.

Tax breaks for seniors: 
For homeowners 65 and older, there is an exemption on the first $75,000 of value.

There is no inheritance tax or estate tax.

Sun and Lowest tax rate for the retired

If you click on the bottom of the page it talks about the best places to retire including more factors than taxes.
Alaska is the worst state for retirement, as on the attached list.
Hawaii has much better health care, senior services, and of course, weather.

Kiplinger has a more detailed discussion.

I was looking at Mississippi a few years ago the homeland of my Choctaw native American ancestors.
Many Southern States have favorable taxation and low cost of living and mild weather, sun, and beaches.
Probably Mississippi is the lowest overall but very hard to calculate.
A high cost of living in some states wipes out any advantage in low taxation.

Mississippi has some of the cheapest housing in the USA and other costs are very low too.
University is in a small town but amenities of a large city.
Far south so lots of sun.  
Gulf Coast Beaches.

Mississippi has the cheapest property taxes in the nation. 
Seniors qualify for a homestead exemption on the first $75,000 of value.
So buy cheap and pay no property taxes at all.

State Sales Tax
7% state levy. Only two localties, Jackson (1%) and Tupelo (0.25%) add to that.

Income Tax Range
Low: 3% (on less than $5,000 of taxable income)
High: 5% (on more than $10,000 of taxable income)

Social Security
Benefits are not taxed.

Exemptions for Other Retirement Income
Qualified retirement income 
-- including income from IRAs, 401(k)s, 403(b)s, Keoghs, and qualified public and private pension plans 
-- is exempt from state income tax.

Interest income from federal securities and obligations of Mississippi and subdivisions are exempt. 

Railroad Retirement benefits are not taxed.

Exempt from state income tax.

401(k)s and Other Defined-Contribution Employer Retirement Plans
Exempt from state income tax.

Private Pensions
Exempt from state income tax.

Public Pensions
Exempt from state income tax.

Property Taxes
The state offers a homestead exemption of up to $300 for all eligible taxpayers. 
The median property tax on Mississippi's median home value of $104,000 is $854.

Tax breaks for seniors: 
For homeowners 65 and older, there is an exemption on the first $75,000 of value.

There is no inheritance tax or estate tax.

Tug of War -- Neocons (& MSM) vs Populists

Probably what is going on.

From: Bob 
Subject: Tug of War -- Neocons (& MSM) vs Populists

Natural Ways to Detox | Getting Rid of Toxins

Good article without footnotes.


Wednesday, April 26, 2017

BART Swarm Invasion Shows Mandated Helplessness Invites Attacks | Oath Keepers

> Libturds reap the rewards of liberalism. Helpless victims.
> John
> Oath Keepers
> Toggle Menu
> BART Swarm Invasion Shows Mandated Helplessness Invites Attacks
> 0 0 0 0
> by David Codrea , April 25, 2017
> Based on the way they vote, that's the way most riders want it.
> '[D]ozens of juveniles terrorized riders Saturday night when they invaded the Coliseum Station and commandeered at least one train car, forcing passengers to hand over bags and cell phones and leaving at least two with head injuries," the San Francisco Chronicle bemoans. "Witnesses told police that 40 to 60 juveniles flooded the station, jumped the fare gates and rushed to the second-story train platform. Some of the robbers apparently held open the doors of a Dublin-bound train car while others streamed inside, confronting and robbing and in some cases beating riders."
> Want to know if these smiling folks are Oath Keepers? Let them know you're keeping and bearing arms because it's your right and see what they have to say about that. (BART/Facebook)
> The passengers weren't in much of a position to do anything but be victimized, thanks in no small part to the Bay Area Rapid Transit's "no guns" policies, combined with the utter refusal of regional "Only Ones" to approve "may issue" (meaning "probably won't unless you're connected) concealed carry permits. That's all enabled by the overwhelmingly dominant "progressive" mindset of a constituency that demands defenselessness for citizens and "sanctuary" for everyone else.
> In this case, the assailants were referenced with euphemisms like "juveniles" and "teenagers," lest the "reporters" commit the cardinal sin of admitting the truth about the inevitable result of "progressive entitlement" policies. That a real entitlement articulated in the Second Amendment is denied while phony ones designed to keep collectivists in power nurture destroyers is undeniable – except for those with an agenda to smear truth-tellers as haters.
> At least we know some are protected, even though oath-breaking "government" officials and enforcers have no duty to protect productive citizens and forbid them from having the means to protect themselves.  Think of this mandate as "for the children," a favorite gun-grabber sound bite:
>     "We are in the process of pulling all surveillance video, and we will share with Oakland police, Oakland Unified School District and Oakland Housing Authority to see if they can help identify the minors," Trost said. "We have had success with sharing images of juveniles with this group and identifying and making arrests in the past." The images cannot be shared publicly, she said, because the attackers appear to be minors.
> Why the hell not? Why is the public not "allowed" to know who the public menaces are, so that if they're not allowed to fight they can at least flee?
> Now that they know they can get away with it, and that's pretty much already been confirmed by social media-organized flash mobs (by "teenagers," or as anti-gun SEPTA Police Chief Thomas J. Nestel III characterizes it, "kids … hurting kids. Love them by making them come home").
> Gee, Officer Krupke…
> All that's left to those unfortunate enough to have to use public transit is to be prey. If you choose personal safety in defiance of "the law," you'll be a "vigilante" and a "criminal" (like Bernhard Goetz). The same will apply if you have one of those impossible-to-get (unless you're connected like anti-gun Sean Penn) permits, chances are the survivors of your assailants – and the media – will paint them as the victims who were just starting to turn their lives around.
> Those are the risks those choosing to remain in such environs will continue to take, and based on their voting patterns, the dangers are self-inflicted.
> So just don't go there? Let 'em stew in their own juices? Problem solved?
> How many live in "flyover" areas where "refugees" leaving fouled urban nests have moved, bringing the same insane "progressive" politics with them? And does anyone think the gun-grabbers are going to stop blaming relatively freer areas for urban self-destruction, inventing scare terms like "iron pipeline," and imposing disarmament edicts everywhere, in Everytown…?
> —–
> If you believe in the mission of Oath Keepers, to defend the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic, please consider making a donation to support our work.  You can donate HERE.
> Categories: 2nd_amendment, All, Oath Keepers
> Tags: BART, Bay Area, Bernhard Goetz, David Codrea, Oakland, San Francisco
> About Author
> David Codrea
> David Codrea
> David Codrea blogs at The War on Guns: Notes from the Resistance (, and is a field editor/columnist for GUNS Magazine. Named "Journalist of the Year" in 2011 by the Second Amendment Foundation for his groundbreaking work on the "Fast and Furious" ATF "gunwalking" scandal, he is a frequent event speaker and guest on national radio and television programs.
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>     Remember the movie "Death Wish" with Charles Bronson?
>     Reply this comment
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> "A veteran - whether active duty, retired, national guard, or reserve - is someone who, at one point in his or her life, wrote a blank check made payable to The ''United States of America'', for an amount of ''up to and including his life.''" – Author Unknown
> "If there must be trouble, let it be in my day, that my child may have peace." – Thomas Paine
> "Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom must, like men, undergo the fatigue of supporting it." – Thomas Paine
> Veterans, you swore an Oath...
> Oath of Enlistment
> I, (NAME), do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. So help me God.
> Officers Oath
> I, [name], do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.
> Your Oath NEVER expires!
> It''s time to keep it!
> Click here to read full length version.
> 1. We will NOT obey orders to disarm the American people.

> 2. We will NOT obey orders to conduct warrantless searches of the American people
> 3. We will NOT obey orders to detain American citizens as "unlawful enemy combatants" or to subject them to military tribunal.

> 4. We will NOT obey orders to impose martial law or a "state of emergency" on a state.

> 5. We will NOT obey orders to invade and subjugate any state that asserts its sovereignty.

> 6. We will NOT obey any order to blockade American cities, thus turning them into giant concentration camps.

> 7. We will NOT obey any order to force American citizens into any form of detention camps under any pretext.

> 8. We will NOT obey orders to assist or support the use of any foreign troops on U.S. soil against the American people to "keep the peace" or to "maintain control."

> 9. We will NOT obey any orders to confiscate the property of the American people, including food and other essential supplies.

> 10. We will NOT obey any orders which infringe on the right of the people to free speech, to peaceably assemble, and to petition their government for a redress of grievances.
> Click here to read full length version.
> Site Dedication
> This site is dedicated to the memory of
> John William Adams (1925-2006),
> Marine and Oath Keeper extraordinaire.
> John Adams, at the age of 16, lied about his age to join the Marines so he could fight against Imperial Japan in the Pacific. His enlistment date was December 10, 1941, just three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor (see below). As a Marine rifleman, he fought the Japanese from island to island, across the pacific, including at Iwo Jima. We may have good men, but we never had better.
> Until his death in 2006, he was a dedicated
> patriot who still took his oath to defend the
> Republic deadly serious. May God grant you the courage to do likewise.
> Stewart is the founder and Director of Oath Keepers. He served as a U.S. Army paratrooper until disabled in a rough terrain parachuting accident during a night jump.
> He is a former firearms instructor and former member of Rep. Ron Paul's DC staff.
> Stewart previously wrote the monthly Enemy at the Gates column for S.W.A.T. Magazine
> Stewart graduated from Yale Law School in 2004, where his paper "Solving the Puzzle of Enemy Combatant Status" won Yale's Miller prize for best paper on the Bill of Rights. He assisted teaching U.S. military history at Yale, was a Yale Research Scholar, and is writing a book on the dangers of applying the laws of war to the American people.
> Board of Directors
> Stewart Rhodes, Army Airborne Veteran, Yale Law School Graduate, OK Founder and President
> Sheriff Richard Mack, Former Sheriff of Graham County, Arizona
> John D. Shirley, Retired Duty Peace Officer - Houston, TX. National Lead Liaison to Peace Officers.
> Jay Stang, Veteran US Marine Corps - Texas Chapter President
> Jim Ayala, EMT Veteran, Oath Keepers Treasurer, Merchandise
> Sgt. Maj. Joseph Santoro, Retired Army, infantry, EOD. OK National Operations NOC
> Michele Imburgia, Texas State VP
> Sheriff Denny Peyman, Retired Jackson County, KY Sheriff, OK National Peace Officer Liaison
> John Kerriman, Currenty

Re: BBC News: Air pollution: 'Heart disease link found'

Indoor pollution is worse.

Move to Hawaii ASAP 
Max clean air and water. 
Exercise outdoors in sun all day
Leave windows open all night. 
Set good examples. 

I saw this on the BBC and thought you should see it:    Air pollution: 'Heart disease link found' -    * 

Re: Hawaii threatened by North Korea now, U.S. commander tells Congress

They would not waste ammo on Hawaii fruits and nuts.

South Korea is very vulnerable now. 

LA NYC DC in range in a few years. Even if they miss they may hit something

Groundbreaking Discovery: Animal Cells Powered by

Unlocking the energy in foods — Science Learning Hub

Honolulu High quality medical VA + civilian Hospitals, peer support healthy not sicko

Huge High ranked Queens Hospital.
Also huge VA - fairly high quality ranking attached.
Both close to downtown, beach, university
HI is the main medical care center for thousands of miles around so can handle anything including wars and other catastrophes.

I avoid all medical and so far been lucky except 2 warts removed.
I want to learn how to do more tests on my own body correctly to optimize all measurements.
University of Hawaii has cheap tuition and faculty resembles ivy-league with good medical college, pharmacy college, etc.

Doctors Nurses Professors and other top professionals accept lower pay to work in paradise and live longer.
Many rich people on the islands do pay top $$$ for best possible care attracts in more professionals.

Also clean water and air is a big attraction.
Non-fluoridated water so less dementia autism etc.
And year round fresh fruits, vegetables and coffee - all high quality.
Why buy cheap if it kills you?
Pay more to get more.
Pick it yourself.

Tornado weather here today.
Perpetual rain, lack of sunshine, cold -- why so many ruin brain and body by sitting indoors, eat junk food, electronics, drugs, alcohol, tobacco
Good for doctors $$$$ but they classify you as sheeple to be fleeced.
Doctors cannot handle surfing injuries, running, athletics, etc. because they have little experience with active healthy people.
Depressing to live among sickos
Bad habits will rub off on you and kill you.
Get daily peer support from healthy people and go to doctors who see mostly healthy people.

Outdoor Hawaii is the best.
Beauty year round with mild weather why so many outdoors people move there.
Far from politics DC.
Unplug from the rat race.
Better to be happy healthy and poor in Hawaii
than dead and rich anywhere else

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Vintage Antique Industrial Cast Iron Book Binding Press | eBay

Learn how to repair books
Bind books
Write books
Mail books
Make paper and ink.
Good for eyes and brain

Throw away TV computer electronics.


Migraine Prevention: Vitamins

Magnesium powder. I use
Everybody is deficient.
Lots of greens.
Other good foods.
No TV or bad lights
No cell phones.
No cell phones for kids anyway.
Cause brain cancer.
Get rid of pollution.
No fluoridated water.

Women more sensitive.


Monday, April 24, 2017

learned helplessness vs move to best weather near Beaches and University

Learn to escape an unhealthy environment and move to a better environment
endures repeatedly painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it is unable to escape or avoid. 
After such experience, the organism often fails to learn "escape" or "avoidance"
clinical depression and related mental illnesses may result from absence of control over the outcome of a situation
American psychologist Martin Seligman initiated research on learned helplessness in 1967 at the University of Pennsylvania
People who perceive events as uncontrollable show a variety of symptoms that threaten their mental and physical well-being. 
They experience stress, they often show disruption of emotions demonstrating passivity or aggressivity, and they can also have difficulty performing cognitive tasks such as problem-solving.
They are less likely to change unhealthy patterns of behavior, causing them to neglect diet and exercise
Depressed patients often express feelings of helplessness and uncontrollability
Abnormal and cognitive psychologists have found a strong correlation between depression and learned helplessness

Below images:
The Wide Green Belt is the USA Average temperature range.
The 3 colored lines are the average city high low mean.
I am looking at mostly university cities with beaches nearby, or the beach itself. 

University of Florida Gainesville gets hot in summer but is great in winter
Has a great Medical college and hospital

Galveston Texas medical college beach area a little cooler

Rehoboth Beach Delaware near Washington DC 
somewhat cool to cold short summer very close to USA average 
Between 2 of the top 4 medical colleges in USA 

Honolulu University of Hawaii beach area 
A little cooler but never cools off very much.  
Much milder winter than most of USA
Big city has everything

Lubbock Texas Tech University Oil Cotton fields gets hot 
but low humidity high altitude, some snow in winter that melts fast in the bright sun.  
Lots of sun even in winter.  
Get rich $$$$

Melbourne Florida Institute of Technology Beach Area 
Fairly warm year round
hot in summer, hotter than Hawaii and more humid.  
Cooler than Hawaii in winter but not too cool.
Space Coast Disney World 

San Diego Chicano Central 
Great summer and winter weather.
Great universities and medical

Springfield Missouri 
Sick White Trash Area 
hot summer and cold winter
big crowded city with everything except fun

Las Vegas Gambling Prostitution 
Hotter than Hell 
but still gets cold in winter.  
Great convention center but not much else worth the miserable weather  and atmosphere.  

ASEA: Another Expensive Way to Buy Water – Science-Based Medicine

Well written


Indoor run gym University of Hawaii at Manoa

Exercise is mandatory for health.
And Hawaii tropical fruit nuts coffee is the best.
Best water and air.

Get job in gym or pick fruit if you have ability.
Or drive Uber Lyft to see sights free.
Learn Asian cooking.


Sunday, April 23, 2017

Safe from Radon gas in Hawaii

Life in Hawaii? Or
Death in other 49 states?
Which is better?

Avoid heaters air conditioners
Traps cancer chemicals Indoors
Turn off electricity.
Use solar panel to power fans radio TV phone.

Open windows.
Live natural in the great outdoors.
Live longer.


Wind Turbine Technician Jobs

Get rich in Texas
If you are not retired

Wind turbine jobs booming

Oil boom continues for decades


Friday, April 21, 2017

Changes to Facebook’s "Real Names" Policy Still Don’t Fix the Problem | Electronic Frontier Foundation

Changes to Facebook’s "Real Names" Policy Still Don’t Fix the Problem | Electronic Frontier Foundation

Socrates tutorial - DARPA - Education Dominance

Future of education.


Weather Honolulu, Hawaii

Half the rain of Missouri
Like Los Angeles. Pasadena. Cal Tech.

Falls in winter not summer.
Like California without smog and heat.

Need sun for fun on beach.
Get outdoors
Not in house or office or school prisons.

Clouds dark north winter cause S.A.D. Seasonal affective disorder. Drugs. Alcohol. Addiction. Depression. Marijuana. Death.

22 Latitude is better. Hawaii the most south and west state. Extreme Southwest. Most sun year round.

Skin is a solar panel for body health. Needs daily sun. Eye health needs sun.

Sea is full of electrons needed to charge you up. All bodily chemical processes need electrons. Don't let your cells go dead.

High ranked VA and Queen Hospital if you get sick.


Thursday, April 20, 2017

Kauai Hawaii Losing the GMO Fight

Get rich by driving Uber Honolulu - The Taxi Alternative | Uber

Buy fancy new car.
Write it off on taxes.
See everything free.


$120,000 Hawaii Property Tax Exemption for retired.

> Don't need much space.
> Shorts. Underwear.
> Laptop.
> Phone.
> Food.
> Great outdoors all day.
> Choose life in Hawaii.
> Better than dead pundit politics TV addict.
> Https://

Retirees, Watch Out for the State Tax Bite

Hawaii Retirement Tax Friendliness

No tax on so social security.

No tax on CalPERS

No tax on CalSTRS

No tax on public government pensions.

Great place to retire


Wednesday, April 19, 2017



Hawaii Oats 50 Pound Bag

Eat raw local fruit nut coffee Kona.
Cheap local farmers markets everywhere.
Year round grow season.
Plus bulk online Staples.


Hi yes

HI no

Hi yes

No hi

HI corrupt move no

Hi bad vibes corruptjon.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Brain Benefits of Exercise Diminish After Short Rest -

I agree
Must exercise 3 hours per day or more.

. JOHN wrote:
> I'm doomed to dumbed down libturdism?  
> John
> Main Menu
> Search
> Well
> Brain Benefits of Exercise Diminish After Short Rest
> Getty Images
> September 28, 2016
> Phys Ed
> Before you skip another workout, you might think about your brain. A provocative new study finds that some of the benefits of exercise for brain health may evaporate if we take to the couch and stop being active, even just for a week or so.
> I have frequently written about how physical activity, especially endurance exercise like running, aids our brains and minds. Studies with animals and people show that working out can lead to the creation of new neurons, blood vessels and synapses and greater overall volume in areas of the brain related to memory and higher-level thinking.
> Presumably as a result, people and animals that exercise tend to have sturdier memories and cognitive skills than their sedentary counterparts.
> Exercise prompts these changes in large part by increasing blood flow to the brain, many exercise scientists believe. Blood carries fuel and oxygen to brain cells, along with other substances that help to jump-start desirable biochemical processes there, so more blood circulating in the brain is generally a good thing.
> Exercise is particularly important for brain health because it appears to ramp up blood flow through the skull not only during the actual activity, but throughout the rest of the day. In past neurological studies, when sedentary people began an exercise program, they soon developed augmented blood flow to their brains, even when they were resting and not running or otherwise moving.
> But whether those improvements in blood flow are permanent or how long they might last was not clear.
> So for the new study, which was published in August in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, researchers from the department of kinesiology at the University of Maryland in College Park decided to ask a group of exceedingly fit older men and women to stop exercising for awhile.
> “We wanted to study longtime, serious endurance athletes because they would be expected to have a very high baseline” level of aerobic fitness and established habits of frequent exercise, says J. Carson Smith, an associate professor of kinesiology at the University of Maryland and senior author of the study. If these people abruptly stopped exercising, he says, the impacts could be expected to be more outsized than among people who worked out only lightly.
> The researchers eventually found 12 competitive masters runners between the ages of 50 and 80 who agreed to join the study. All had been running and racing for at least 15 years and still regularly ran 35 miles a week or more.
> At the start of the experiment, the runners visited the researchers’ lab for tests of their cognitive skills. They also had a special brain M.R.I. that tracks how much blood is flowing to various parts of the brain.
> The researchers were particularly interested in blood flow to the hippocampus, a portion of the brain that is essential for memory function.
> Then the athletes sat around for 10 days. They did not run or otherwise exercise and were asked to engage in as little physical activity as possible.
> While some people might find such a directive easy to follow, these men and women loved to work out, Dr. Smith says, and might have been tempted to cheat and jog just a little. But researchers “called them frequently,” he says, to gently remind them to remain couch-bound.
> After 10 days of being sedentary, the erstwhile runners returned to the lab to repeat the earlier tests, including the M.R.I. scan of their brains.
> The results showed striking changes in blood flow now. Much less blood streamed to most of the areas in the runners’ brains, and the flow declined significantly to both the left and right lobes of the hippocampus.
> Encouragingly, the volunteers did not perform noticeably worse now on the tests of cognitive function than they had at the start.
> But the results do suggest that the improvements in brain blood flow because of exercise will diminish if you stop training, Dr. Smith says.
> Dr. Smith also suspects that the runners regained their exercise-related boost in blood flow to the head after returning to training, though he and his colleagues did not retest their volunteers and so cannot say for certain.
> They also do not know whether the effects on brain blood flow would be as pronounced among moderate exercisers who quit for 10 days or whether shorter or longer periods of exercise abstinence would have comparable effects.
> “I would not want someone to think that if they are on deadline or on vacation for a week or so and don’t manage to work out,” that they have necessarily starved their brains of blood, he says.
> He also points out that although brain blood flow dropped significantly after the 10 days of rest among the runners, their performance on cognitive tests did not decline.
> “We need far more research” into the time course of changes to the brain and to thinking skills because of exercise and skipping workouts, he says.
> But for now, the study’s message seems fairly straightforward. For the continued health of your brain, try to keep moving.
> Related

Heavily armed Muslim warns U.S. public: ‘Be terrified’

Muslims are not native Americans.

They should return home to their ancestral Homeland.
Or shoot themselves.

, "J. C.  wrote:
> It is getting worse, prepare for the worst. It could be this summer. Here is another example of the daily events thwarted by police. Read the whole article linked above.
> John
> ‘No double standard in South Dakota’
> Wolman said Jaber was within his rights as a South Dakota resident to “open carry” weapons in his car or on his person or to conceal carry if he had a valid permit.
> “The constitutional rights are there. Obviously law enforcement made the decisions that there wasn’t a violation of state gun laws,” he said.

Fresno shooting spree: 3 people killed, suspect who yelled 'Allahu Akbar,' says he 'hates white people' in custody | Fox News

Avoid Muslims.
Move to Hawaii.
Much cooler in summer.
Much warmer in winter.
Go to beach every day.
Enjoy life without terror.
SHTF already.
Get healthy without Muslims
Long life.
Eat Asian food
Fresh fruit
Kona coffee.
Macadamia nuts.


The Knowledge Illusion by Steven Sloman, Philip Fernbach |

Sounds good to me a layman with lots of observations multicultural


The Knowledge Illusion by Steven Sloman, Philip Fernbach |

Sunday, April 16, 2017

Kauai banana, fruits Wild chickens!!! Free? Get pick job

Re: How Environmental Conditioning Helps Tap Evolutionary Strengths

One reason I avoid heaters and coolers.

Most places too hot in winter
Too cold in summer
Around here take cost and blanket to library all summer. On Apr 16, 2017 7:05 AM, "J. C. JOHNSON" <> wrote:
> Interesting piece. I believe it's true.
> John
> "But, according to Carney, the evidence suggests the human body actually needs those extreme temperature variations. We evolved to develop resilience and health through those changes. For example, vasoconstriction and vasodilation help optimize the function of your circulatory system by strengthening all those smooth muscles that allow constriction and dilation to occur."

Hawaii Waikiki Beach best I have found.

Wannabe DC pundit?
Hot muggy summers
cold snowy winters
Money in politics?

Or healthy beach boy in Hawaii?
Best water an air quality.
Fresh tropical fruits nuts very healthy.

4 summers ago I got tan and lost 20 pounds by walking in MO sun 95 degrees painless mitochondria get energy from sun not food
felt great.

Hawaii 10 degrees cooler than MO and can cool in the water. Ideal for health.
Balanced sunlight thru year.
Can go shirtless many places.
Carry a shirt when needed.

Waikiki is the best beach I have found.
Perfect air water temps year round.
Upscale compact everything in a few miles.
Huge Walmart at one end next to shopping center.

Go to beach every day.
Walk on beach or sidewalks or indoors amazing variety of places to walk and see.
Talk to people from all over the world all day.
Constant rotation of people.

Huge VA hospital.
High ranked huge hospital Queen.
All services you need from a large city.
More hotels and restaurants than any comparable sized city. Resorts.

Happy Easter.
Easter eggs color like tulips?

Friday, April 14, 2017

Home at 410 Nahua St APT 403

I walked by 2014

410 Nahua St APT 403, Honolulu, HI 96815
For Sale: $69,900
Beds: 1, Baths: 1.0, Sqft: 560

Mobile? Try Zillow, reinvented for iPhone, iPad, or Android:

C++ securitu

Tweet from Colleen ✨✌✨ (@We_R_TheMedia)

Colleen ✨✌✨ (@We_R_TheMedia) tweeted at 5:16 PM on Thu, Apr 13, 2017:
Here's The Result Of Inviting A Barbaric Culture To Live Amongst Us 👇

Islam Will Never Evolve. When Allowed, Society Around Islam Devolves

Get the official Twitter app at

Hawaii white people neighborhoods cooler weather.

My apartment lease and auto registration expires next month June so may be a good time to move. 
Honolulu is on Oahu pictured below.
The red dots represent white people, green is asian.  
The wind comes from the northeast
The northeast part of the island has a Marine Corps base and whiter and richer people.
Probably that would be a good area to live but it may be too quiet and boring.
Hawaii economy is basically a bunch of military bases with a tourist area and some agriculture.  
I would probably prefer to be near the University and Waikiki beach and tourist area and downtown on the southside.
Great place to get healthy and enjoy life. 
But an intellectual wasteland unless you study oceans, volcanoes, tropical fruits and nuts,...
Depends on what you want - happy and healthy or dead and accomplished.  
We are hotter than Honolulu normal lately and get more than 10 degrees hotter all summer with no cooling ocean breezes.  

Skinny Bitch book looks good. Rory freedman

eye health obesity electronics junk food liberal news media disinformation system

Many eye problems follow obesity
Macular Degeneration
not to mention other diseases - diabetes, dementia, cancer, stroke, heart attack, etc.

(junk food + sitting + electronics cause junk food eating and hormonal changes that cause both eye problems and obesity).

Rehab needed — change requires change
The first step in any cure is to normalize all readings in whatever can be easily measured.
weight, blood pressure, running speed, swimming distance, biking weight lifting strength,
Insulin, Insulin resistance, glucose, cholesterol, BRCA genes etc.
Go to college and take biochemistry how to measure all that needs to be measured.
Get DVM to practice on animals learn how to cure people and animals

Move to Hawaii, eat fruit, peer pressure to get outside and exercise.
Get energy from sun, not food, mitochondria ATP Adenosine Triphosphate signalling.
learn Chinese Japanese vegetarian cooking.
No smog or smog test in Hawaii middle of ocean not many cars.
No snow in the populated areas, no heater needed, ocean is your cooler jump in.
Don't need electricity at all.
Best water quality possible.

Get rich on your photos and book on how you cured yourself and lived long healthy life.
I will reduce down to 133 pounds high school weight, powerlifting class 132 1/4

Lots of footnotes in this large study but need to reduce obesity now before full dangers are documented

The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries.
While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity.
Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related
age-related maculopathy, and
diabetic retinopathy.

Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract.

There is strong evidence that obesity is associated with elevated intraocular pressure

The medical consequences of obesity are numerous.
It is an established risk factor for many systemic diseases including
coronary heart disease,
type 2 diabetes mellitus,
sleep apnea.
43, 69, 77, 123, 155

Obesity has also been associated with certain types of cancers.12, 20
One study estimated that obesity is responsible for approximately
40% of endometrial cancers,
25% of renal cancers, and
10% each of colonic and breast cancers. 12

Other obesity-associated co-morbidities include
polycystic ovary syndrome,
fatty liver as well as
secondary to social stigmatization and discrimination. 123

The impact of obesity on health is widespread, and the

deleterious effects of obesity on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems are well known. 77

Obesity has recently been reported to be negatively associated with visual acuity, 10

obesity has been associated with cataract,1, 21, 53, 63, 86, 94, 107, 108, 121, 129,168, 211, 222
age-related maculopathy,2, 28, 167, 173
diabetic retinopathy,8, 24, 83, 114, 171, 207 and
glaucoma.60, 127, 225

The purpose of this article is to review the potential ocular effects of obesity.

The relationship between obesity and cataract has been investigated in many epidemiological studies,10, 21, 22,53, 63, 74, 86, 94, 107, 108, 121, 126, 129, 144, 168, 197, 211, 222

The strongest evidence are based on prospective data from several large population-based studies demonstrating positive association between obesity and cataract.63, 73, 86,107, 168, 211

In 1995 63 and 2000, 168 the Physicians' Health Study, a randomized trial of 22071 healthy male American physicians aged 40–84 years, reported both

overall obesity, measured as BMI, and

abdominal adiposity, measured as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR),

as independent risk factors for cataract.

It was found that at any given level of BMI, a 2-unit higher level predicted a 12% increase risk of cataract. 63

The Nurses' Health Study, a large prospective study of female nurses in 1993, also found a higher rate of cataract surgery for women with BMI levels of 23 or greater compared to women with lower levels. 73

Subsequently, the Nurses' Health and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study generated further results, reporting that obesity increases risk of cataract overall, but in particular, of posterior subcapsular (PSC) type, even after adjusting for variables such as smoking, age and diabetes. 211

Prospective data from the Framingham Eye Study also demonstrates an independent association between greater BMI and higher incident of cortical and PSC opacities. 86

Further support on the positive association between obesity and cataract is derived from cross-sectional data from other population-based,1, 21, 94, 121, 129, 222 and

hospital-based studies,126,197

, 10-year prospective data from this study showed an association between higher BMI and increased risk of PSC cataract in persons without diabetes. 107

There have also been inconsistencies regarding the types of cataract associated with obesity in these studies.

Cortical and PSC cataracts have been most consistently associated with obesity.1, 21, 121, 129, 222

Among these studies, the Barbados Eye Study in African Americans found higher WHR to be associated with cortical opacities. 129

The Blue Mountain Eye Study in white Australians suggested that obese persons (BMI of 30 kg/m 1 or greater) have about half- and twofold increase risk of having cortical and PSC cataracts respectively. 222

In the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), both higher BMI and weight gain were found to have significant association with moderate cortical cataract, independent of age and gender. 1

Several plausible pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the association of obesity and cataract.

One theory suggests that leptin, a 16-kDa pleiotropic cytokine expressed and secreted mainly by adipocytes, 227 is involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying cataract formation. 64

Studies have discovered that individuals with obesity likely exhibit hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance.59, 78, 79, 149

Leptin has also been found to increase accumulation of reactive oxygen species in various cellular models.14, 219

This link between obesity, hyperleptinemia and increased oxidative stress has been further reinforced by a subsequent study revealing a strong positive association between BMI and systemic oxidative stress as determined from creatinine-indexed urinary concentrations of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α. 103

In addition, recent studies have proposed that oxidative stress may play an important pathogenic role in cataract formation.11, 58, 90,161, 187, 188, 189, 190

In view of these links, hyperleptinemia associated with obesity may promote cataract formation.

Apart from leptin, elevated levels of C-reactive protein and plasma fibrinogen were also found in obese individuals,32,52, 71, 209 and recently these markers of inflammation, such as fibrinogen, have been suggested to have association with cataract.65, 169

Furthermore, obesity has also been linked to cataract by its associated complications such as

diabetes,1,52, 115, 127, 130, 183

glucose intolerance,
insulin resistance, 69
hyperlipidemia and

They are all known risk factors for cataract,74, 96, 101, 129, 197, 211, 222

While the majority of data suggest that higher BMI is associated with cataract, there has been a body of literature that lower BMI may also be a risk factor for some forms of cataract,21, 22, 126 particularly in non-white populations.53,121, 144

Among Chinese people in the Shihpai Eye Study in Taiwan, for example, whereas higher BMI was associated with cortical opacity,121

In the Tanjong Pagar Survey in Chinese Singaporeans, lower BMI was an independent risk factor for cataract, particularly for cortical cataract. 53

lower BMI reflects poor nutritional status and malnutrition in developing countries is a potential risk factor for cataract. 198

Although several studies have proposed that weight loss and reduction of abdominal obesity would likely lessen incidence and costs of cataract,96, 168 the efficacy of obesity treatment in reducing risk of cataract has never been evaluated in clinical trials.

In summary, based on the current data, obesity is likely associated with cataract.

There are varying patterns and strengths of association for different cataract types, suggesting possible existence of distinct etiological pathways for the different types of cataracts. 212

The reason for the disparity of findings may also partly be due to racial/ethnic differences in population groups and use of different grading systems for cataract and lens opacities.


there have been several studies that have provided evidence in support of a positive association between obesity and intraocular pressure (IOP) (Table 2),

the strongest risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON).9, 66, 99, 127, 140,185

Table 2
Studies Investigating Relationship between Obesity and Glaucoma or Intraocular Pressure

Most epidemiological studies have been focusing on the association between obesity and IOP or ocular hypertension.

Population-based data from several studies have demonstrated independent cross-sectional association between obesity and ocular hypertension.17, 95, 109, 125, 148,175, 177, 218, 221

The Beaver Dam Eye Study reported a significantly positive association of IOP with several factors including BMI. 109

This was consistent with findings from a subsequent hospital-based study, indicating that ocular hypertension risk was significantly greater in persons with BMI of 30 or greater, independent of age and sex. 95

Studies of the Asian populations generated similar results.125, 146,175, 221

In a large population-based study of 25,216 Japanese aged 14–94 years, a positive association between obesity and ocular hypertension was evident in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis, even after controlling for age, gender and blood pressure. 146

This was further reinforced by another large population-based study of Koreans. 125

Some studies further suggest that the association between obesity and ocular hypertension may reflect underlying association between insulin resistance and ocular hypertension, as the association between obesity measures and IOP was not significant after adjustments for glucose and other confounders. 152

a hospital-based study, relying on review of medical records, reported that patients with higher BMI were more likely to have a clinical diagnosis of glaucoma on admission. 225

A clear pathophysiological explanation for the association of obesity with IOP and glaucoma Both the 'mechanical' and 'vascular' etiology theories of glaucoma may be related to obesity.

With regards to the mechanical theory, 72 obesity has been postulated to exert an effect on IOP by causing excessive intraorbital adipose tissue, increased blood viscosity, increased episcleral venous pressure, and impairment of aqueous outflow facility.17, 166,176, 177

Furthermore, ocular hypertension has been associated with obesity-related systemic diseases such as

hypertension,13, 37, 106, 128, 138, 200, 218

diabetes, 152

dyslipidemia, 95 and

insulin resistance.147, 152, 218

Increased blood pressure may lead to an increased filtration fraction of the aqueous humor through elevated ciliary artery pressure,17, 82, 177 while hyperglycemia may induce osmotic fluid shift into the intraocular space. 141

Both mechanisms can ultimately result in elevated IOP.

On the other hand, the vascular theory suggests that eyes with inherently poor vascular supply to the optic nerve head are more predisposed to damage by elevated or normal IOP.38, 134

Impaired vascular supply may be related to abnormal ocular blood flow and perfusion instability secondary to alternations in autonomic and endothelial function.16, 49, 68, 70, 75, 100

Obesity has been shown to cause both vascular endothelial dysfunction62, 223 and autonomic dysfunction, particularly in people with diabetes.132, 135

In addition, cellular factors, including neurotropin deprivation, release of excitatory amino acids, and oxidative stress, have also been suggested to contribute to GON on the molecular level.18, 46, 61, 93,145, 153, 154, 159, 165, 229

Among these, oxidative stress has recently gained intense interest.18, 46, 61, 93, 145, 153, 165, 229

Increased oxidative DNA damage was found in the trabecular meshwork of glaucoma patients, 93 and oxidative stress has been postulated to cause proteasome failure and induce human trabecular meshwork degeneration, leading to impairment of the ability of the tissue to modulate outflow resistance. 18

As discussed previously, hyperleptinemia, which is closely related to obesity, is associated with increased oxidative stress.14, 31, 59, 78, 79, 103, 149, 219

Therefore, theoretically, obesity-associated hyperleptinemia may cause an increase in systemic oxidative stress, priming the glaucoma pathogenetic cascade.165, 229
weight reduction, with adjuvant medical therapy, in obese patients with raised IOP may help preventing the development and progression of GON.

In summary, there is considerable evidence from clinical studies to support an association between obesity with higher IOP.


Age-related maculopathy (ARM) remains a major blinding condition in elderly people, despite the introduction of several new treatment modalities, including photodynamic therapy,27, 76, 136, 217 novel pharmacological approaches to inhibit angiogenesis34, 47, 67, 170 and the use of antioxidant supplement.27, 88

The relationship between obesity and ARM has been investigated in several studies (Table 3). Hirvela and colleagues 87 were the first to observe a positive association between obesity and ARM. This association was subsequently supported by epidemiological data from several large population-based studies.36, 108, 167, 184Prospective data from the Physicians' Health Study demonstrated that the 15-year incidence for visually significant dry ARM was highest in obese men and lowest in men with normal BMI, even after controlling for age and cigarette smoking. 167 However, the study could not find any significant association between obesity and neovascular ARM, which was possibly due to small number of cases in the studied population. The AREDS has reported cross-sectional association between higher BMI and more advanced ARM, as documented from fundus photographs. 2A more recent report in 2005 among patients with baseline early or intermediate ARM showed that greater BMI was significantly associated with incident geographic atrophy and progression to advanced ARM with visual impairment, even after controlling for multiple factors including age, gender and treatment. 28 These findings are supported by cross-sectional data from the Blue Mountains Eye Study, although the Beaver Dam Eye Study only found this association in women, but not in men. 108 The Pathologies Oculaires Liées à l'Age (POLA) Study of large number of Europeans found that individuals with obesity have a two-fold increase in risk for developing late but not early ARM, 36 although adjustment for other variables such as smoking were not performed.

Table 3
Studies Investigating Relationship between Obesity and Age-Related Maculopathy
The pathophysiological mechanisms accountable for the probable association between obesity and ARM are unclear. ARM is a multifactorial disease with some common downstream pathophysiologic pathways leading to the spectrum of retinal signs seen clinically.89, 120, 164, 226Obesity has been hypothesized to be linked to some of these pathways. As discussed previously, obesity may increase systemic oxidative stress secondary to hyperleptinemia.14,31, 59, 78, 79, 103, 149, 219 There is compelling evidence that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ARM.120, 164, 186, 226 Oxidative damage to lipids in Bruch membrane appears to be important in the etiology of choroidal neovascular ARM. 186 In response to excessive oxidative stress, the RPE cells may detach and migrate into the subretinal space or outer retina and secrete excessive vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), eliciting invasion of neovascularization in Bruch membrane. 186Given this, obesity may have a role in the development of ARM because of its associated hyperliptinemia-induced oxidative stress. Nevertheless, a study examining the association of plasma leptin with ARM found paradoxical results; plasma leptin was negatively correlated with severity of ARM, after controlling for age, sex and BMI. It was suggested by the authors that reduced leptin levels could result in loss of its lipidostatic function in cellular level, leading to an increased intracellular fatty acid accumulation within the lesions found in ARM patients. 44 Studies has also shown that plasma fibrinogen and other markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein) may be associated with late ARM, 184 suggesting that inflammation may play a role in ARM development. Plasma fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, for example, are elevated in both adults and children with obesity,6, 206 and may therefore be a potential link between obesity and ARM. Finally, other proposed risk factors for ARM, including hypertension2, 36, 91, 92, 116 and hyperlipidemia,112, 210 are also well-known conditions associated with obesity, raising the possibility that obesity may cause ARM by secondary effects from its associated complications.

Apart from an association between BMI and ARM, central obesity, as defined by the waist circumference or WHR, has also been found to increase risk of progression to advanced ARM in one study, 173 although not in another. 143 As with the association of BMI and cataract, there are also some conflicting data, based on a smaller number of studies, indicating that lean body mass may increase risk of ARM.115, 167, 183

In summary, there is considerable evidence that supports an association between obesity and ARM. The nature of this association with the different types of ARM and the role of weight loss in preventing the development or slowing the progression of ARM, however, remains to be determined.


The association between obesity and diabetic retinopathy has been investigated in several studies. Most,8, 35, 113, 203, 207,213, 228 but not all,23, 41, 114, 124, 150 studies have documented a relationship between higher BMI and increased risk of retinopathy (Table 4). Few of these studies, however, have prospective data.8, 24, 83, 114 A study in Sweden examined 582 young (aged 15–34) individuals with diabetes (79% type 1 diabetes) with 10 years follow-up, and found that individuals with higher BMI developed retinopathy at earlier stage. 83 The EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study of 764 individuals with type 1 diabetes after more than 7 years of follow-up reported WHR as an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy. 24 However, conflicting data were generated in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR).113,114 Although obesity (BMI >31.0 kg/m 1 for men and 32.1 kg/m 1 for women) was found to associate with progression and severity of retinopathy, these associations were not statistically significant and were limited to only individuals with older-onset insulin-independent diabetes. 113 On the other hand, for those who were underweight (BMI <20 kg/m 1), a 3-fold increase in risk of developing retinopathy was demonstrated. 114 Underweight has been suggested to be a marker of the more "severe" phase of diabetes, or an indicator of late-onset type 1 diabetes. 113

Table 4
Studies Investigating Relationship between Obesity and Diabetic Retinopathy
There are new data that show obesity is associated with retinopathy signs in the general population and non-diabetic persons. In the Hoorn Study in the Netherlands, WHR was also independently associated with a number of incident retinopathy signs, including retinal hemorrhages, microaneurysms, hard exudates and cotton-wool spots in the non-diabetic general population, although the association with BMI failed to achieve statistical significance. 208

The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the possible association between obesity and retinopathy are not understood. 40 Epidemiological data from various studies have identified hyperlipidemia25, 26, 29, 33, 48, 111, 117, 147,150, 193 and hypertension110, 119, 192, 196 as risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. Both conditions are common risk factors of obesity. In fact, metabolic syndrome, encompassing these conditions, has also been shown to be associated with retinopathy. 213

However, there is also evidence that obesity may have a more direct role in the development of retinopathy. Several pathogenetic theories of diabetic retinopathy exist based on the potential roles of aldose reductase activity, vasoproliferative factors, oxidative stress, platelet function and blood viscosity. Of these, vasoproliferative factors, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have recently gained intense interest. The concentration of VEGF has been found to be higher in the vitreous of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. 5 Serum angiogenic factors, including VEGF, have been observed to be elevated in obese human.142, 179 These findings provide a potential link between obesity and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, oxidative stress has also been suggested to contribute in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy,19, 156possibly by inducing over-expression of VEGF and cause features of diabetic retinopathy including retinal neovascularization and macular edema.19, 178 Finally, as discussed in previous sections, obesity may increase oxidative stress because of its associated hyperleptinemia.14,31, 59, 78, 79, 103, 149, 219 High levels of plasma leptin have been found to relate to both hypertensive4, 172, 194, 203 and diabetic retinopathy.57, 203 Detailed pathophysiological pathways leading to hypertensive retinopathy has been described elsewhere, 215 but leptin has been postulated to worsen hypertension by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, accelerating the development of hypertensive retinopathy. 80 Positive association between severity of hypertensive retinopathy and plasma leptin, independent of BMI, has been reported. 204 Apart from leptin, other adipocytokines have also been investigated, but the evidence to support their roles in the pathogenesis of retinopathy is currently weak.42, 45, 56, 137, 220

The impact of weight loss, particularly in obese individuals, on regression of retinopathy has been inadequately investigated.174, 195 Lifestyle changes, such as weight loss, has been advocated as a key factor in helping prevent diabetes and to delay diabetic complications including retinopathy in susceptible patients. 174 However, patients with type 1 diabetes and anorexia nervosa with weight loss have also been observed to have higher risk of developing early retinopathy. 195 In spite of the insufficient data, it is generally accepted that weight reduction should be advised in obese diabetic individuals to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease118, 180, 181, 182, 191, 201, 202, 216 and possibly diabetic retinopathy. 224


Obesity has been recognized as a significant risk factor for retinal vein occlusion in a very limited number of studies.7,214 In the ARIC and Cardiovascular Health Studies (CHS), obese persons were found to have a nearly four-fold increased risk of having retinal vein occlusion, and there was a significant trend of increasing risk across all quartiles of BMI. 214 Moreover, retinal venous and arterial occlusions are known to be associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercoagulability or hyperviscosity syndromes.122, 157, 162, 214 In addition to the known associations of obesity with hypertension and diabetes, several reviews have presented some evidence supporting the association of hypercoagulability disorders with obesity and metabolic syndrome.3, 151 This provides further support for the possible association between obesity and retinal vascular occlusive diseases.

Other ophthalmic conditions may also be associated with obesity. For example, it has been suggested that obesity may be related to oculomotor nerve palsy. 199 Obesity has also been associated with recurrent lower eyelid entropion. 160Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, a common co-morbid condition related to obesity, has been associated with papilledema 158 and floppy eyelid syndrome. 139 Moreover, obesity is also a risk factor for benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri).15, 102, 163 It has been postulated that central obesity may increase intracranial pressure by increasing intra-abdominal, and subsequently pleural, pressure, with a resultant increase of cardiac filling pressure, impeding venous return from the brain. 15 This suggestion, however, is not agreed by all investigators. 131And finally, Prader-Willi syndrome, an obesity-associated condition, was found to be related with a number of ocular abnormalities including myopia, astigmatism, amblyopia, strabismus and exotropia. 84

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Future Research
This review suggests that further research is required to fully understand the relationship between obesity and eye diseases. Several lines of investigation are suggested. First, given the growing epidemic of childhood obesity, the lack of data on the ocular effects of obesity early in life needs to be addressed. Secondly, as this review shows, prospective studies are lacking for many of the associations identified from the cross-sectional data. For example, the associations between obesity and IOP, while consistent, are largely based on cross-sectional data, and there are no studies that show obesity is associated with an demonstrable increase in IOP over time. Third, because obesity is closely related to dietary habits, there is a need to study the effect of dietary risk factors on the association of obesity and eye diseases. Fourth, because the criteria for obesity and the dietary habits varies widely between racial/ethnic groups, further studies are needed to address the potential ocular effects of obesity in different racial/ethnic populations. The association between obesity and ARM is an example where studies have only been conducted in white populations. Fifth, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the reported associations identified in the epidemiological studies are unknown, and remain as speculations. Thus, additional experimental, cellular or molecular studies may broaden our understanding of the impact of obesity on eye health. Six, most studies have only provided information about how obesity, defined as BMI, weight or WHR, relates to the different eye diseases, and the impact of weight change (weight gain or loss) on eye diseases is less clear. Weight change is more clinically relevant and useful in terms of guiding management. Future epidemiological studies should therefore concentrate on the association of weight change and risk of eye diseases. Finally, in contrast to systemic diseases, there are no clinical trials to demonstrate the potential ocular benefits of weight loss. If weight loss is proven to be an effective method, either as a sole or adjuvant treatment, in delaying the onset or slowing the progression of eye diseases in obese individuals, both clinicians and patients will likely gain additional incentive to battle against this major public health problem.

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Obesity is a major public health problem and its impact on ocular health is increasing recognized. Associations of obesity with cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy and retinopathy have been reported with varying degree of certainty. The inconsistency of results, combined with the deficiency of robust data, suggest that further investigations are required to clarify these associations. The efficacy of obesity treatment in reducing the risk of eye diseases is also unknown, but studies in this area may provide important insight for the potential use of weight loss strategies to reduce the burden of eye diseases in individuals with obesity.

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Method of Literature Search
A systematic MEDLINE search on National Institute of Health's PubMed ( with coverage up to 18 August 2005 was conducted initially using the following keywords: "obesity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, weight, risk factor" in various combinations with "eye (368 citations), eye disease (725), ocular (225), cataract (66), lens opacity (48), glaucoma (37), intraocular pressure (32), maculopathy (13), diabetic retinopathy (24), hypertensive retinopathy (34), retinal arterial occlusion (8), retinal venous occlusion (10)". After review of abstracts, relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. All English articles were read, and for the relevant non-English articles, the English abstracts were reviewed. Bibliographies of these articles provided further references, including books and internet-based data.

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This article was partially funded by NIH grant R21-HL077166, the Science, Technology Innovation (STI) Grant and the Sylvia and Charles Viertel Clinical Investigator Award, Australia (TYW). The authors reported no proprietary or commercial interest in any product mentioned or cnocept discussed in this review.

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Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

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