Saturday, August 31, 2013

smog, heat, move

Ruthe,

You need to move out of Fresno for better health. Heat makes smog worse. Obama is wasting money on wars in the Middle east that would be better spent protecting Negroes and other Americans. Smog kills more than 9,000 in California every year and sickens many more. Horses cause much less smog than cars and trucks!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smog#Photochemical_smog

Smog is a serious problem in many cities and continues to harm human health. Ground-level ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are especially harmful for senior citizens, children, and people with heart and lung conditions such as emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma. It can inflame breathing passages, decrease the lungs' working capacity, cause shortness of breath, pain when inhaling deeply, wheezing, and coughing. It can cause eye and nose irritation and it dries out the protective membranes of the nose and throat and interferes with the body's ability to fight infection, increasing susceptibility to illness. Hospital admissions and respiratory deaths often increase during periods when ozone levels are high.

Premature deaths due to cancer and respiratory disease. A 20-year American Cancer Society study found that cumulative exposure also increases the likelihood of premature death

Smog and birth defects. smog in the San Joaquin Valley area of California was linked to two types of neural tube defects: spina bifida (a condition involving, among other manifestations, certain malformations of the spinal column), and anencephaly (the underdevelopment or absence of part or all of the brain, which if not fatal usually results in profound impairment). According to an online 2013 MSN Healthy Living news story article by Robert Preidt, a study (featuring 806 women who had babies with birth defects between 1997 and 2006, and 849 women who had healthy babies) by lead author Amy Padula, a postdoctoral scholar in pediatrics at the Stanford University School of Medicine,

Smog can form in almost any climate where industries or cities release large amounts of air pollution, such as smoke or gases.

Smog is worse during periods of warmer, sunnier weather when the upper air is warm enough to inhibit vertical circulation. It is especially prevalent in geologic basins encircled by hills or mountains. It often stays for an extended period of time over densely populated cities or urban areas, and can build up to dangerous levels.

Los Angeles and the San Joaquin Valley are notorious for their smog. The millions of vehicles in these regions combined with the additional effects of the port complexes frequently contribute to further air pollution. these geologically predisposed entrapment zones collect pollution levels from cars, trucks and fixed sources which still exceeds health standards and is a pressing issue for the more than 25 million people who live there.

http://articles.latimes.com/2006/mar/25/local/me-smog-25

The number of deaths from breathing sooty smog in California may be more than twice as high as previously estimated, based on a recent USC study that examined the risk of such deaths in the Los Angeles Basin. found two to three times greater risk of mortality from heart attacks, lung cancer and other serious illness tied to chronic exposure to fine particulate matter than did previous studies.The study looked at specific soot measurements and deaths in hundreds of neighborhoods --
rather than relying on citywide annual averages used in the past -- and detected the largest increased risks in the Inland Empire.

Fine particulate matter spewed out by cars, trucks, locomotives, ships, planes, refineries and other sources lodges deep in the lungs and is widely considered the most lethal form of air pollution.

9,000 Californians die annually from diseases caused or aggravated by air pollution, more than half of them in Southern California.That number could double or even triple if the Air Resources Board incorporates the USC data into its estimates.

other studies at Harvard University found that as soot pollution declined in six northeastern cities, related deaths declined as well. The other, a recent study by Loma Linda University, found increased coronary deaths among women exposed to both fine particulate matter and ozone.

The Times reported earlier this week that one in every 15,000 Californians -- about 66 per million -- is at risk of contracting cancer from breathing chemicals in the air over his or her lifetime, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recent National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment. The study was based on emissions of 177 chemicals in 1999.

"The more we learn about particulate, the worse the news is," as recently as 10 years ago, ozone and toxics were considered the problem. "Part of that is the technology for looking at very fine particles keeps improving.... A fine particle is less than one-twenty-eighth the size of a human hair. At that size, it can actually permeate right through your lungs into your bloodstream and cause heart problems.""The study underscores the extremely grave severity of the threat from air pollution," EPA administrator Stephen L. Johnson has drawn criticism for proposing new standards for particulates considered too lax by his own scientific advisory panel. He is facing a court-ordered September deadline to make a final decision.

The highest death rates from smog-related illnesses in the USC study were found in the Inland Empire, where smog is blown by prevailing winds. In western Riverside and San Bernardino counties, the smog is trapped by four mountain ranges."Somebody living in San Bernardino is two or three times more likely to die from smog during a given period than someone in Venice,"The risk of fatal heart attacks tied to soot was as much as 39% higher in the smoggiest areas. Deaths from diabeteswere twice as high in those areas.
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War? Safe and Sound in Los Angeles Capital Cities. Dancing in the Street

War providesa media frenzy so the sheeple will not notice they are being deflated. The song "Safe and Sound" by "Capital Cities"means that the rich 1% and their multicultural supporters will be safe and sound in Capital Cities such as Los Angeles, happily inflating themselves and dancing in the street while bombs fall on the 99% poor people around the world who will be deflated, depressed, disoriented, dispirited, despondent, discombobulated, decapitated, disemboweled, deceased... Facebook voter consensus has not come out strongly against the war or for impeach Obama. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_Cities_(band)Capital Cities is an American indie pop duo from Los Angeles, California, formed by Ryan Merchant and Sebu Simonian. Its debut EP was released on June 7, 2011, with lead single "Safe And Sound." The band was featured on the Pop Up #1 compilation curated by Perez Hilton on August 7, 2012. The band's song "Safe and Sound" charted at #1 on the US Alternative Songs chart. The song was also used in a German Vodafone commercial. Merchant met Simonian on Craigslist. In May 2013, "Safe and Sound" reached number one on the German Singles Chart. Simonian was born in Syria, and moved with his family to Lebanon where he lived until the age of five during the decades-long civil war. “I was surrounded by war and it was difficult,” http://www.shirinsadeghi.com/safe-sound-my-interview-with-capital-cities-sebu-simonian/ Simple song but the video and choreography looks hard

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Friday, August 30, 2013

USA chemical warfare. Anti-Androgens against males, females and others. Cancer obesity. Endocrine Disrupters

War will distract Obama from chemical attacks on Negroes and lighter colored Americans.

Chemicals help cause increasing queerness, reproductive problems, cancer, obesity,...

Government is aware of the problem but doing little to solve the problem.

More reason to hunt, fish, garden, farm, and build your own food, clothes, and shelter.

Stay outdoors, live in a cool climate, don't buy new carpets, flooring, furniture, paint,...

Avoid heat and smog and agricultural areas

Avoid cosmetics, sunscreens, lotions, cremes, shampoos, conditioners, deodorants,..

Long articles, whole journals often free online.

International Journal of Andrology, in a paper titled "Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys", "... suggest that prenatal exposure to antiandrogenic phthalates may be associated with less male-typical play behaviour in boys. ... [and] ... suggest that these ubiquitous environmental chemicals have the potential to alter androgen-responsive brain development in humans."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiandrogens

Antiandrogens, or androgen antagonists, first discovered in the 1960s, prevent androgens from expressing their biological effects on responsive tissues. Antiandrogens alter the androgen pathway by blocking the appropriate receptors, competing for binding sites on the cell's surface, or affecting androgen production. Antiandrogens can be prescribed to treat an array of diseases and disorders. In men, antiandrogens are most frequently used to treat prostate cancer. In women, antiandrogens are used to decrease levels of male hormones causing symptoms of hyperandrogenism. Antiandrogens present in the environment have become a topic of concern. Many industrial chemicals, pesticides and insecticides exhibit antiandrogenic effects

Exposure to pesticides and insecticides with antiandrogenic properties has been found to negatively affect humans and laboratory animals. Androgens are important in fetal development as well as in pubertal development. Exposure during critical periods of development can cause reproductive malformations in males while exposure after birth and before puberty can delay pubertal development.

Animal studies show that deformities result in offspring exposed to antiandrogens. Male mice can display malformations that resemble the reproductive organs of females. Exposure to ... feminized male offspring, as seen in abnormalities of anogenital distance, small or absent sex accessory glands, hypospadias, undescended testes, retained nipples, cleft phallus, and presence of a vaginal pouch. Male mice exposed before puberty to vinclozolin experienced delayed pubertal development visualized by delayed onset of androgen-dependent preputial separation.

Industrial chemicals with anti-androgenic effects are ubiquitous in the environment. Consumer products such as toys and cosmetics may contain phthalates or parabens, which disrupt androgen synthesis

Phthalates are mainly found in plastics. Fetuses that are exposed to a mixture of pthalates in utero may show signs of disrupted reproductive development. combined, reductions in both testosterone synthesis and gene expression of steroidogenic pathway proteins were seen. The result in male rats was undescended testes and abnormal development of reproductive tissues

Parabens are commonly found in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Paraben esters, such as butylparaben, have been found to mimic androgen antagonist activity. Anti-androgenic endocrine disruption has been shown in aquatic species

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phthalates

a number of studies have found phthalates such as DEHP in bottled water and soda.

phthalates are added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity. They are used primarily to soften polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Phthalates are being phased out of many products in the United States, Canada, and European Union over health concerns. Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, from enteric coatings of pharmaceutical tablets and nutritional supplements to viscosity control agents, gelling agents, film formers, stabilizers, dispersants, lubricants, binders, emulsifying agents, and suspending agents. End-applications include adhesives and glues, electronics, agricultural adjuvants, building materials, personal-care products, medical devices, detergents and surfactants, packaging, children's toys, modeling clay, waxes, paints, printing inks and coatings, pharmaceuticals, food products, and textiles.

Phthalates are easily released into the environment because there is no covalent bond. As plastics age and break down, the release of phthalates accelerates. People are commonly exposed to phthalates, and most Americans tested by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have metabolites of multiple phthalates in their urine. Because phthalate plasticizers are not chemically bound to PVC, they can easily leach and evaporate into food or the atmosphere. Phthalate exposure can be through direct use or by indirect means through leaching and general environmental contamination.

Diet is believed to be the main source of di phthalate (DEHP) and other phthalates in the general population. Fatty foods such as milk, butter, and meats are a major source.

In studies of rodents exposed to certain phthalates, high doses have been shown to change hormone levels and cause birth defects.

Phthalates are easily released into the environment because there is no covalent bond between the phthalates and plastics in which they are mixed. As plastics age and break down, the release of phthalates accelerates.

Phthalates in the environment are subject to biodegradation, photodegradation, and anaerobic degradation; therefore, in general, they do not persist in the outdoor environment.

Outdoor air concentrations are higher in urban and suburban areas than in rural and remote areas.

indoor air concentrations are higher than outdoor air concentrations due to the nature of the sources. Because of their volatility, DEP and DMP are present in higher concentrations in air in comparison with the heavier and less volatile DEHP.

Higher air temperatures result in higher concentrations of phthalates in the air. PVC flooring leads to higher concentrations of BBP and DEHP, which are more prevalent in dust.

2012 Swedish study of children found that phthalates from PVC flooring was taken up into their bodies, showing that children can ingest phthalates not only from food but also by breathing and through the skin.

People are commonly exposed to phthalates, and most people in the US tested by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have metabolites of multiple phthalates in their urine.

data shows that the tolerable intake of children is exceeded to a considerable degree, in some instances up to 20-fold. Because phthalate plasticizers are not chemically bound to PVC, they can easily leach and evaporate into food or the atmosphere. Phthalate exposure can be through direct use or by indirect means through leaching and general environmental contamination.

2008 Bulgarian study, higher dust concentrations of DEHP were found in homes of children with asthma and allergies, compared with healthy children's homes. The author of the study stated, "The concentration of DEHP was found to be significantly associated with wheezing in the last 12 months as reported by the parents."

Phthalates were found in almost every sampled home in Bulgaria. The same study found that DEHP, BBzP, and DnOP were in significantly higher concentrations in dust samples collected in homes where polishing agents were used. High frequency of dusting did decrease the concentration.

In general, children's exposure to phthalates is greater than that of adults. In a 1990s Canadian study that modeled ambient exposures,

Infants and toddlers are at the greatest risk of exposure, because of their mouthing behavior. Body-care products containing phthalates are a source of exposure for infants

2008 study "observed that reported use of infant lotion, infant powder, and infant shampoo were associated with increased infant urine concentrations of [phthalate metabolites], and this association is strongest in younger infants. These findings suggest that dermal exposures may contribute significantly to phthalate body burden in this population."

"Young infants are more vulnerable to the potential adverse effects of phthalates given their increased dosage per unit body surface area, metabolic capabilities, and developing endocrine and reproductive systems."

Infants and hospitalized children are particularly susceptible to phthalate exposure. Medical devices and tubing may contain 20-40% Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) by weight, which "easily leach out of tubing when heated (as with warm saline/blood) " Several medical devices contain phthalates including, but not limited to, IV tubing, gloves, nasogastric tubes and respiratory tubing.

The FDA an extensive risk assessment of phthalates in the medical setting and found that neonates may be exposed to five times greater than the allowed daily tolerable intake. This finding led to the conclusion by the FDA that, "Children undergoing certain medical procedures may represent a population at increased risk for the effects of DEHP."

2008, Danish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found a variety of phthalates in erasers and warned of health risks when children regularly suck and chew on them.

Phthalates are also found in medications, where they are used as inactive ingredients in producing enteric coatings. some include omeprazole, didanosine, mesalamine, and theophylline.

A recent study found that urinary concentrations of the DBP metabolite of Asacol users was 50 times higher than the mean of nonusers. The study showed that exposures from phthalate-containing medications can far exceed population levels from other sources. DBP in medications raises concern about health risks due to the high level of exposures associated with taking these medications, especially in vulnerable segments of the population, including pregnant women and children.

2008, the United States National Research Council recommended that the cumulative effects of phthalates and other antiandrogens be investigated. It criticized US EPA guidances, which stipulate that, when examining cumulative effects, the chemicals examined should have similar mechanisms of action or similar structures, as too restrictive. It recommended instead that the effects of chemicals that cause similar adverse outcomes should be examined cumulatively.[12]:9 Thus, the effect of phthalates should be examined together with other antiandrogens, which otherwise may have been excluded because their mechanisms or structure are different.

Breast cancer:
women may be at higher risk for potential adverse health effects of phthalates due to increased cosmetic use. Diethyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate are especially ubiquitous in cosmetics and personal care products. According to in vivo and observational studies by Davis (1994) and Lopez-Carillo et al. (2010), there is an association between phthalate exposure and endocrine disruption leading to development of breast cancer. Furthermore, it has been well documented that endocrine disruptors such as phthalates can be additive, so even very small amounts can interact with other chemicals to have cumulative, adverse "cocktail effects"

Phthalate parent compounds and/or their metabolites have recently been implicated as a cause of breast cancer (BC). A 2010 study published in Environmental Health Perspectives for the first time implicated that the exposure to diethyl phthalates metabolite, may be associated with increased risk of BC (Odds Ratio of 2.2). The case-control study was age matched to 233 BC cases residing in northern Mexico. The phthalate level was determined in urine samples collected pretreatment from the cases.

It is also known that DEP is found in a high proportion of personal care products, deodorants and perfumes whereas in contrast degree of exposure may also be influencing results. In most cases of breast cancer the cause is unknown and less than 25% of patients have a history of commonly associated risk factors. such as: early menarche, later age at first childbirth, nulliparity, family history of BC, or history of benign breast biopsy

Endocrine disruptor

In studies of rodents exposed to certain phthalates, high doses have been shown to change hormone levels and cause birth defects. metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) suppresses steroidogenesis by fetal-type Leydig cells in primates as in rodents.

Dr. Shanna Swan reported in the "Swan Study" that human phthalate exposure during pregnancy results in decreased anogenital distance among baby boys. In this study, phthalate metabolites were measured in urine samples collected from the pregnant women who gave birth to the infants. After birth, the genital features and anogenital distance of these women's babies were measured and correlated with the residue levels in the mother's urine. Boys born to mothers with the highest levels of phthalates were 7 times more likely to have a shortened anogenital distance

anogenital distance is routinely used as a measure of fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors in animals. The Swan study is thought by some to "suggest that male reproductive development in humans could be affected by prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of phthalates".

Authors of a 2006 study of boys with undescended testis hypothesized that exposure to a combination of phthalates and anti-androgenic pesticides may have contributed to that condition.

In November 2009, Swan et al., in the International Journal of Andrology, in a paper titled "Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys",

"... suggest that prenatal exposure to antiandrogenic phthalates may be associated with less male-typical play behaviour in boys. ... [and] ... suggest that these ubiquitous environmental chemicals have the potential to alter androgen-responsive brain development in humans."

There may be a link between the obesity epidemic and endocrine disruption and metabolic interference. "in a national cross-section of U.S. men, concentrations of several prevalent phthalate metabolites showed statistically significant correlations with abnormal obesity and insulin resistance." a metabolite of DEHP, has been found to interact with all three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

"The roles of PPARs in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism raise the question of their activation by a sub-class of pollutants, tentatively named metabolic disrupters."

Phthalates belong to this class of metabolic disruptors. It is a possibility that, over many years of exposure to these metabolic disruptors, they are able to deregulate complex metabolic pathways in a subtle manner.

A 2011 study of New York City children found an association between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations and larger body size measurements

A 2012 study suggested that high levels of phthalates may be connected to the current obesity epidemic in children. It was found that obese children show greater exposure to phthalates than nonobese children. It was reported that the obesity risk increases according to the level of the chemical found in the children's bloodstream.

Large amounts of specific phthalates fed to rodents have been shown to damage their liver and testes, and initial rodent studies also indicated hepatocarcinogenicity. Following this result, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was listed as a possible carcinogen by IARC, EC, and WHO.

In 2004, a joint Swedish-Danish epidemiologic team found a link between allergies in children and the phthalates DEHP and BBzP. Their review article and meta-analysis of published data relating to phthalates and asthma found an association between phthalates in the home and asthma, especially in children, but this evidence was limited by imprecise data on levels of exposure.

In 2007, a cross-sectional study of U.S. males concluded that urine concentrations of four phthalate metabolites correlate with waist size and three phthalate metabolites correlate with the cellular resistance to insulin, a precursor to Type II diabetes. The authors note the need for follow-up longitudinal studies, as waist size is known to correlate with insulin resistance.

A 2012 study found that people with elevated phthalate levels had roughly twice the risk of developing diabetes compared with those with lower levels. They also found that phthalates were associated with disrupted insulin production.

A 2009 study published in the Journal of Pediatrics found that prenatal phthalate exposure was related to low birth weight in infants. Low birth weight is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age and increases the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood.

Researchers at the University of Michigan School of Public Health found that women who deliver prematurely have, on average, up to three times the phthalate level in their urine compared to women who carry to term.

In 2009, South Korean scientists reported findings of a statistically significant correlation between urine phthalate concentrations in children and symptoms of ADHD.

The findings were replicated in The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study, which enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n= 404), published in Jan 2010. There was an association of prenatal phthalate exposure with offspring behavior and executive functioning at ages 4 to 9 years.

A study published in 2011 followed the children of 319 women who gave birth between 1999 and 2006 to evaluate possible associations between prenatal exposures to phthalates and possible adverse effects in development at age 3 years. The results suggested that prenatal exposure to phthalates had affected the children's mental, motor and behavioral development during the preschool years. The senior epidemiologist on the study stated,

"The results are concerning since increasing exposures from the lowest 25% to the highest 25% among the women in our study was associated with a doubling or tripling in the odds of motor and/or behavioral problems in the children".

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http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2605

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International Journal of Andrology

© European Academy of Andrology

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 6

Edited By: Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts

Impact Factor: 3.565

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 1/6 (Andrology)

Online ISSN:1365-2605

Associated Title(s):Andrology ,Journal of Andrology

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April 2012

Volume 35, Issue 2

Special Issue on Endocrine Disrupters

Special Issue on Endocrine Disrupters

Thisspecial issue contains articles that are focused on the impact of manmade environmental factors on human reproductive health in men and women. Most of the papers originated as presentations at the 6th Copenhagen Workshop on Endocrine Disrupters, which took place in April 2011.

In addition, seven thematically related original studies that were submitted to the journal independently of this meeting are also included. The fact that so many environment-related studies have been carried out within a short period emphasizes the importance of this topic.

Read the Special Issue Today!

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Special issue on the Impact of Endocrine Disrupters on Reproductive Health

1. Anna-Maria Andersson,
2. Katrine Bay,
3. Kenneth M Grigor,
4. Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts,
5. Niels E Skakkebæk

Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01274.x

© 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology

Issue

International Journal of Andrology

International Journal of Andrology

Volume 35,Issue 3,page 215,June 2012

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How to Cite Publication History

How to Cite

Andersson, A.-M., Bay, K., Grigor, K. M., Meyts, E. R.-D. and Skakkebæk, N. E. (2012), Special issue on the Impact of Endocrine Disrupters on Reproductive Health. International Journal of Andrology, 35: 215. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01274.x

Publication History

1. Issue published online: 22 MAY 2012
2. Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012

1.

Original Articles

1.
High urinary phthalate concentration associated with delayed pubarche in girls(pages 216–226)

H. Frederiksen, K. Sørensen, A. Mouritsen, L. Aksglaede, C. P. Hagen, J. H. Petersen, N. E. Skakkebaek, A.-M. Andersson and A. Juul

Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01260.x

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2.
Urinary phthalate excretion in 555 healthy Danish boys with and without pubertal gynaecomastia(pages 227–235)

Mikkel G. Mieritz, Hanne Frederiksen, Kaspar Sørensen, Lise Aksglaede, Annette Mouritsen, Casper P. Hagen, Niels E. Skakkebaek, Anna-Maria Andersson and Anders Juul

Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01279.x

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3.
Foetal exposure to phthalate esters and anogenital distance in male newborns(pages 236–244)

Y. Suzuki, J. Yoshinaga, Y. Mizumoto, S. Serizawa and H. Shiraishi

Article first published online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01190.x

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4.
Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach(pages 245–252)

T. Søeborg, H. Frederiksen and A. M. Andersson

Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01240.x

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5.
High prevalence of micropenis in 2710 male newborns from an intensive-use pesticide area of Northeastern Brazil(pages 253–264)

L. Gaspari, D. R. Sampaio, F. Paris, F. Audran, M. Orsini, J. B. Neto and C. Sultan

Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01241.x

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6.
Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy(pages 265–272)

C. Wohlfahrt-Veje, H. R. Andersen, T. K. Jensen, P. Grandjean, N. E. Skakkebæk and K. M. Main

Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01252.x

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7.
Early breast development in girls after prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides(pages 273–282)

C. Wohlfahrt-Veje, H. R. Andersen, I. M. Schmidt, L. Aksglaede, K. Sørensen, A. Juul, T. K. Jensen, P. Grandjean, N. E. Skakkebæk and K. M. Main

Article first published online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01244.x

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8.
You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta(pages 283–293)

H. E. Virtanen, J. J. Koskenniemi, E. Sundqvist, K. M. Main, H. Kiviranta, J. T. Tuomisto, J. Tuomisto, M. Viluksela, T. Vartiainen, N. E. Skakkebaek and J. Toppari

Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01233.x

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9.
Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures(pages 294–302)

K. Krysiak-Baltyn, J. Toppari, N. E. Skakkebaek, T. S. Jensen, H. E. Virtanen, K.-W. Schramm, H. Shen, T. Vartiainen, H. Kiviranta, O. Taboureau, K. Audouze, S. Brunak and K. M. Main

Article first published online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01268.x

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10.
Mixtures of endocrine disrupting contaminants modelled on human high end exposures: an exploratory study in rats(pages 303–316)

S. Christiansen, A. Kortenkamp, M. Axelstad, J. Boberg, M. Scholze, P. R. Jacobsen, M. Faust, W. Lichtensteiger, M. Schlumpf, A. Burdorf and U. Hass

Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01242.x

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11.
You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
Foetal and post-natal exposure of sheep to sewage sludge chemicals disrupts sperm production in adulthood in a subset of animals(pages 317–329)

M. Bellingham, C. McKinnell, P. A. Fowler, M. R. Amezaga, Z. Zhang, S. M. Rhind, C. Cotinot, B. Mandon-Pepin, N. P. Evans and R. M. Sharpe

Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01234.x

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12.
The effect of dihydrotestosterone exposure during or prior to the masculinization programming window on reproductive development in male and female rats(pages 330–339)

A. Dean, L. B. Smith, S. Macpherson and R. M. Sharpe

Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01236.x

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13.
Are expression and localization of tight and adherens junction proteins in testes of adult boar affected by foetal and neonatal exposure to flutamide?(pages 340–352)

A. Hejmej, I. Kopera, M. Kotula-Balak, M. Lydka, M. Lenartowicz and B. Bilinska

Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01206.x

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14.
The endocrine disruptors dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and
diethylstilbestrol (DES) influence Leydig cell regeneration following ethane dimethane*sulphonate*treatment of adult male rats(pages 353–363)

K. Heng, R. Anand-Ivell, K. Teerds and R. Ivell

Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01231.x

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15.
Exposure of neonatal rats to anti-androgens induces penile mal-developments and infertility comparable to those induced by oestrogens(pages 364–376)

L. Simon, L. Avery, T. D. Braden, C. S. Williams, L. A. Okumu, J. W. Williams and H. O. Goyal

Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01232.x

* Abstract
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16.
Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis(pages 377–384)

D. M. Kristensen, L. Lesné, V. Le Fol, C. Desdoits-Lethimonier, N. Dejucq-Rainsford, H. Leffers and B. Jégou

Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01282.x

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17.
Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats(pages 385–396)

K. R. Mandrup, U. Hass, S. Christiansen and J. Boberg

Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01258.x

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18.
Modelling defined mixtures of environmental oestrogens found in domestic animal and sewage treatment effluents using an in vitro oestrogen-mediated transcriptional activation assay
(T47D-KBluc)(pages 397–406)

Dieldrich S. Bermudez, L. Earl Gray and Vickie S. Wilson

Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01278.x

* Abstract
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2.

Review Article

1.
Detection of endocrine disruptors – from simple assays to whole genome scanning(pages 407–414)

E. Sung, N. Turan, P. W.-L. Ho, S.-L. Ho, P. D. B. Jarratt, R. H. Waring and D. B. Ramsden

Article first published online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01254.x

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3.

Original Article

1.
Biomarkers of endocrine disruption: cluster analysis of effects of plasticisers on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolism of
steroids(pages 415–423)

R. H. Waring, D. B. Ramsden, P. D. B. Jarratt and R. M. Harris

Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01248.x

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4.

Review Articles

1.
Sunscreens: are they beneficial for health? An overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV-filters(pages 424–436)

M. Krause, A. Klit, M. Blomberg Jensen, T. Søeborg, H. Frederiksen, M. Schlumpf, W. Lichtensteiger, N. E. Skakkebaek and K. T. Drzewiecki

Article first published online: 22 MAY 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01280.x

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2.
Obesogens, stem cells and the developmental programming of obesity(pages 437–448)

A. Janesick and B. Blumberg

Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01247.x

* Abstract
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5.

Original Articles

1.
Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts – a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980(pages 449–455)

L. Priskorn, S. A. Holmboe, R. Jacobsen, T. K. Jensen, T. H. Lassen and N. E. Skakkebaek

Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01265.x

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2.
Trends in sex hormone concentrations in US males: 1988–1991 to 1999–2004(pages 456–466)

S. J. Nyante, B. I. Graubard, Y. Li, G. M. McQuillan, E. A. Platz, S. Rohrmann, G. Bradwin and K. A. McGlynn

Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01230.x

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3.
Semen variation in a population of fertile donors: evaluation in a French centre over a 34-year period(pages 467–474)

C. Splingart, C. Frapsauce, S. Veau, C. Barthélémy, D. Royère and F. Guérif

Article first published online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01229.x

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*

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Editor-in-Chief: Kamal Zaki Mahmoud Shaeer
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Current Issue: September 2013 - Volume 3 - Issue 3

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Assessment of late-onset hypogonadism among male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

S. Youssef, Sahar; Abdel Dayem, Aya M.; Abouelezz, Nahla F.; More

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The Global Online Sexuality Survey: the USA in 2011, marriage, coital frequency, and contraception among English-speaking men

Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal

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Male fertility: influence of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone on seminal free L-carnitine

Ahmed, Syed D.H.; Ahsan, Shahid; Burney, Syed I.A.

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Evaluation of female sexual function among renal transplant recipients

Eid, Mohamed A.; Zeidan, Ashraf S.; Marie, Mohamed A.; More

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The sexual profile of patients with prostatorrhea

Ghanem, Hussein; Eid, Mohamed A.; Tarek, Ahmed; More

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Assessment of late-onset hypogonadism among male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

S. Youssef, Sahar; Abdel Dayem, Aya M.; Abouelezz, Nahla F.; More

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PDF (507 KB)
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The Global Online Sexuality Survey: the USA in 2011, marriage, coital frequency, and contraception among English-speaking men

Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal

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PDF (243 KB)
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Male fertility: influence of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone on seminal free L-carnitine

Ahmed, Syed D.H.; Ahsan, Shahid; Burney, Syed I.A.

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PDF (323 KB)
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Evaluation of female sexual function among renal transplant recipients

Eid, Mohamed A.; Zeidan, Ashraf S.; Marie, Mohamed A.; More

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The sexual profile of patients with prostatorrhea
Ghanem, Hussein; Eid, Mohamed A.; Tarek, Ahmed; More
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Abstract PDF (210 KB)
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Assessment of late-onset hypogonadism among male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease S. Youssef, Sahar; Abdel Dayem, Aya M.; Abouelezz, Nahla F.; More Purchase Access
Abstract PDF (507 KB)
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The Global Online Sexuality Survey: the USA in 2011, marriage, coital frequency, and contraception among English-speaking men Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal
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Abstract PDF (243 KB)
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Male fertility: influence of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone on seminal free L-carnitine Ahmed, Syed D.H.; Ahsan, Shahid; Burney, Syed I.A.
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Evaluation of female sexual function among renal transplant recipients Eid, Mohamed A.; Zeidan, Ashraf S.; Marie, Mohamed A.; More
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Thursday, August 29, 2013

fat Brain: Breastfeeding protects against persistent stuttering | University of Illinois

Traditions are traditions for a reason. The importance of fats to the brain is shown by breastfeeding. Infant triples brain size first year of life. Brain has the most cholesterol density. Needs fats.

suggest that essential fatty acids found in breast milk but often lacking in infant formulas may help explain why longer duration of breastfeeding is associated with better brain and language development.

“Long-chain fatty acids found in human milk, specifically docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, play an important role in the development of neural tissue,” Mahurin-Smith said. “Fluent speech requires an extraordinarily complex sequence of events to unfold rapidly, and our hypothesis was that early differences in neurodevelopment could cause difficulties with speech fluency later in life.”

The infant brain triples in size in its first year of life, and “more than half of the solid weight of that newly built tissue will be lipid,” the researchers wrote. DHA is the fatty acid most prevalent in the mammalian brain. Infants lacking adequate DHA in the diet can synthesize it from other fatty acids, but “research shows that the rate at which DHA is incorporated into brain tissue outstrips the rate at which it can be synthesized.”

Multiple studies suggest that the lack of adequate DHA in development can impair brain structure and function, Ambrose said. Fatty acids also are known to influence gene expression, she said, binding to transcription factors that can regulate the activity of many genes.

*http://news.illinois.edu/news/13/0805breastfeeding_NicolineAmbrose.html*

Breastfeeding may protect against persistent stuttering

Nicoline Ambrose Photo by
L. Brian Stauffer

Scientist, 98, challenges orthodoxy on causes of heart disease | University of Illinois

I agree with him. I started eating more egg yolks and butter. I fortunately never ate trans-fats or much vegetable oil.

*http://news.illinois.edu/news/13/0731heart_disease_FredKummerow.html*

Scientist, 98, challenges orthodoxy on causes of heart disease

feature image Photo by
L. Brian Stauffer

Harvard Study: No Correlation Between Gun Control and Less Violent Crime

It is actually a study by 2 California authors published in The Harvard Law Review.

Here is the link to the study, rather interesting although they are clumsy with numbers and statistics:

http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlpp/Vol30_No2_KatesMauseronline.pdf

http://www.breitbart.com/Big-Government/2013/08/27/Harvard-Study-Shows-No-Correlation-Between-Strict-Gun-Control-And-Less-Crime-Violence

HARVARD STUDY: NO CORRELATION BETWEEN GUN CONTROL AND LESS VIOLENT CRIME

2671
113
24K

Biology GRE Subject Test

Some say that Biology is easier than Mathematics and Computer Science. I don't think so. Below is what you should know to earn a Biology degree. Required for admission to Phd programs, Medical school, etc. Looks interesting and I pick some of it up from reading, but I did not take enough classes in Biology.

Biology is very useful and important.

http://www.ets.org/gre/subject/about/content/biology

*I. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (33–34%)*

* Fundamentals of cellular biology, genetics and molecular biology are addressed.
* Major topics in cellular structure and function include metabolic pathways and their regulation, membrane dynamics and cell surfaces, organelles, cytoskeleton, and cell cycle.
* Major areas in genetics and molecular biology include chromatin and chromosomal structure, genomic organization and maintenance, and the regulation of gene expression.
* The cellular basis of immunity and the mechanisms of
antigen-antibody interactions are included. Distinctions between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are considered where appropriate. * Attention is also given to experimental methodology.

1. Cellular Structure and Function (16–17%)
1. Biological compounds
* Macromolecular structure and bonding
* Abiotic origin of biological molecules
2. Enzyme activity, receptor binding and regulation
3. Major metabolic pathways and regulation
* Respiration, fermentation and photosynthesis
* Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules
* Hormonal control and intracellular messengers
4. Membrane dynamics and cell surfaces
* Transport, endocytosis and exocytosis
* Electrical potentials and transmitter substances
* Mechanisms of cell recognition, cell junctions and plasmodesmata * Cell wall and extracellular matrix
5. Organelles: structure, function, synthesis and targeting * Nucleus, mitochondria and plastids
* Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes
* Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles
* Lysosomes, peroxisomes and vacuoles
6. Cytoskeleton, motility and shape
* Actin-based systems
* Microtubule-based systems
* Intermediate filaments
* Bacterial flagella and movement
7. Cell cycle, growth, division and regulation (including signal transduction)
8. Methods
* Microscopy (e.g., electron, light, fluorescence)
* Separation (e.g., centrifugation, gel filtration, PAGE, fluorescence-activated cell sorting [FACS])
* Immunological (e.g., Western Blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence)
2. Genetics and Molecular Biology (16–17%)
1. Genetic foundations
* Mendelian inheritance
* Pedigree analysis
* Prokaryotic genetics (transformation, transduction and conjugation)
* Genetic mapping
2. Chromatin and chromosomes
* Nucleosomes
* Karyotypes
* Chromosomal aberrations
* Polytene chromosomes
3. Genome sequence organization
* Introns and exons
* Single-copy and repetitive DNA
* Transposable elements
4. Genome maintenance
* DNA replication
* DNA mutation and repair
5. Gene expression and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: mechanisms
* The operon
* Promoters and enhancers
* Transcription factors
* RNA and protein synthesis
* Processing and modifications of both RNA and protein 6. Gene expression and regulation: effects
* Control of normal development
* Cancer and oncogenes
* Whole genome expression (e.g., microarrays)
* Regulation of gene expression by RNAi (e.g., siRNA) * Epigenetics
7. Immunobiology
* Cellular basis of immunity
* Antibody diversity and synthesis
* Antigen-antibody interactions
8. Bacteriophages, animal viruses and plant viruses
* Viral genomes, replication, and assembly
* Virus-host cell interactions
9. Recombinant DNA methodology
* Restriction endonucleases
* Blotting and hybridization
* Restriction fragment length polymorphisms
* DNA cloning, sequencing and analysis
* Polymerase chain reaction

*II. ORGANISMAL BIOLOGY (33–34%)*

* The structure, physiology, behavior and development of plants and animals are addressed.
* Topics covered include nutrient procurement and processing, gas exchange, internal transport, regulation of fluids, control mechanisms and effectors, and reproduction in autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms.
* Examples of developmental phenomena range from fertilization through differentiation and morphogenesis.
* Perceptions and responses to environmental stimuli are examined as they pertain to both plants and animals.
* Major distinguishing characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of selected groups from the various kingdoms are also covered.

1. Animal Structure, Function and Organization (10%)
1. Exchange with environment
* Nutrient, salt and water exchange
* Gas exchange
* Energy
2. Internal transport and exchange
* Circulatory and digestive systems
3. Support and movement
* Support systems (external, internal and hydrostatic) * Movement systems (flagellar, ciliary and muscular) 4. Integration and control mechanisms
* Nervous and endocrine systems
5. Behavior (communication, orientation, learning and instinct) 6. Metabolic rates (temperature, body size and activity) 2. Animal Reproduction and Development (6%)
1. Reproductive structures
2. Meiosis, gametogenesis and fertilization
3. Early development (e.g., polarity, cleavage and gastrulation) 4. Developmental processes (e.g., induction, determination, differentiation, morphogenesis and metamorphosis)
5. External control mechanisms (e.g., photoperiod)
3. Plant Structure, Function and Organization, with Emphasis on Flowering Plants (7%)
1. Organs, tissue systems, and tissues
2. Water transport, including absorption and transpiration 3. Phloem transport and storage
4. Mineral nutrition
5. Plant energetics (e.g., respiration and photosynthesis) 4. Plant Reproduction, Growth and Development, with Emphasis on Flowering Plants (5%)
1. Reproductive structures
2. Meiosis and sporogenesis
3. Gametogenesis and fertilization
4. Embryogeny and seed development
5. Meristems, growth, morphogenesis and differentiation
6. Control mechanisms (e.g., hormones, photoperiod and tropisms) 5. Diversity of Life (6%)
1. Archaea
* Morphology, physiology and identification
2. Bacteria (including cyanobacteria)
* Morphology, physiology, pathology and identification 3. Protista
* Protozoa, other heterotrophic Protista (slime molds and Oomycota) and autotrophic Protista
* Major distinguishing characteristics
* Phylogenetic relationships
* Importance (e.g., eutrophication, disease)
4. Fungi
* Distinctive features of major phyla (vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction)
* Generalized life cycles
* Importance (e.g., decomposition, biodegradation, antibiotics and pathogenicity)
* Lichens
5. Animalia with emphasis on major phyla
* Major distinguishing characteristics
* Phylogenetic relationships
6. Plantae with emphasis on major phyla
* Alternation of generations
* Major distinguishing characteristics
* Phylogenetic relationships

*III. ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION (33–34%)*

* This section deals with the interactions of organisms and their environment, emphasizing biological principles at levels above the individual.
* Ecological and evolutionary topics are given equal weight. * Ecological questions range from physiological adaptations to the functioning of ecosystems.
* Although principles are emphasized, some questions may consider applications to current environmental problems.
* Questions in evolution range from its genetic foundations through evolutionary processes to their consequences.
* Evolution is considered at the molecular, individual, population and higher levels.
* Principles of ecology, genetics and evolution are interrelated in many questions.
* Some questions may require quantitative skills, including the interpretation of simple mathematical models.

1. Ecology (16–17%)
1. Environment/organism interaction
* Biogeographic patterns
* Physiological ecology
* Temporal patterns (e.g., seasonal fluctuations)
2. Behavioral ecology
* Habitat selection
* Mating systems
* Social systems
* Resource acquisition
3. Population Structure and Function
* Population dynamics/regulation
* Demography and life history strategies
4. Communities
* Direct and indirect interspecific interactions
* Community structure and diversity
* Change and succession
5. Ecosystems
* Productivity and energy flow
* Chemical cycling
2. Evolution (16–17%)
1. Genetic variability
* Origins (mutations, linkage, recombination and chromosomal alterations)
* Levels (e.g., polymorphism and heritability)
* Spatial patterns (e.g., clines and ecotypes)
* Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
2. Evolutionary processes
* Gene flow and genetic drift
* Natural selection and its dynamics
* Levels of selection (e.g., individual and group)
* Trade-offs and genetic correlations
* Natural selection and genome evolution
* Synonymous vs. nonsynonymous nucleotide ratios
3. Evolutionary consequences
* Fitness and adaptation
* Speciation
* Systematics and phylogeny
* Convergence, divergence and extinction
* Coevolution
4. History of life
* Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
* Fossil record
* Paleontology and paleoecology
* Lateral transfer of genetic sequences

http://www.ets.org/gre/subject/about/content/biology

Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology Test

Overview

* The test consists of approximately 170 multiple-choice questions, a number of which are grouped in sets toward the end of the test and based on descriptions of laboratory situations, diagrams or experimental results.
* The content of the test is organized into three major areas: biochemistry, cell biology, and molecular biology and genetics. In addition to the total score, a subscore in each of these subfield areas is reported. Because these three disciplines are basic to the study of all organisms, test questions encompass both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
* Throughout the test, there is an emphasis on questions requiring problem-solving skills (including mathematical calculations that do not require the use of a calculator) as well as content knowledge. * While only two content areas in the following outline specifically mention methodology, questions on methodology and data
interpretation are included in all sections.
* In developing questions for the test, the test development committee considers both the content of typical courses taken by
undergraduates and the knowledge and abilities required for graduate work in the fields related to the test.
* Because of the diversity of undergraduate curricula, few examinees will have encountered all of the topics in the content outline. Consequently, no examinee should expect to be able to answer all questions on the edition of the test he or she takes.
* The three subscore areas are interrelated. Because of these interrelationships, individual questions or sets of questions may test more than one content area. Therefore, the relative emphases of the three areas in the following outline should not be considered definitive. Likewise, the topics listed are not intended to be all-inclusive but, rather, representative of the typical
undergraduate experience.

Content Specifications

*I. BIOCHEMISTRY — 36%*

1. Chemical and Physical Foundations
* Thermodynamics and kinetics
* Redox states
* Water, pH, acid-base reactions and buffers
* Solutions and equilibria
* Solute-solvent interactions
* Chemical interactions and bonding
* Chemical reaction mechanisms
2. Structural Biology: Structure, Assembly, Organization and Dynamics * Small molecules
* Macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins and complex lipids)
* Supramolecular complexes (e.g., membranes, ribosomes and multienzyme complexes)
3. Catalysis and Binding
* Enzyme reaction mechanisms and kinetics
* Ligand-protein interaction (e.g., hormone receptors, substrates and effectors, transport proteins and antigen-antibody interactions) 4. Major Metabolic Pathways
* Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur assimilation
* Anabolism
* Catabolism
* Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules
5. Bioenergetics (including respiration and photosynthesis)
* Energy transformations at the substrate level
* Electron transport
* Proton and chemical gradients
* Energy coupling (e.g., phosphorylation and transport) 6. Regulation and Integration of Metabolism
* Covalent modification of enzymes
* Allosteric regulation
* Compartmentalization
* Hormones
7. Methods
* Biophysical approaches (e.g., spectroscopy, x-ray,
crystallography, mass spectroscopy)
* Isotopes
* Separation techniques (e.g., centrifugation, chromatography and electrophoresis)
* Immunotechniques

*II. CELL BIOLOGY — 28%*

Methods of importance to cellular biology, such as fluorescence probes (e.g., FRAP, FRET and GFP) and imaging, will be covered as appropriate within the context of the content below.

1. Cellular Compartments of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: Organization, Dynamics and Functions
* Cellular membrane systems (e.g., structure and transport across membrane)
* Nucleus (e.g., envelope and matrix)
* Mitochondria and chloroplasts (e.g., biogenesis and evolution) 2. Cell Surface and Communication
* Extracellular matrix (including cell walls)
* Cell adhesion and junctions
* Signal transduction
* Receptor function
* Excitable membrane systems
3. Cytoskeleton, Motility and Shape
* Regulation of assembly and disassembly of filament systems * Motor function, regulation and diversity
4. Protein, Processing, Targeting and Turnover
* Translocation across membranes
* Posttranslational modification
* Intracellular trafficking
* Secretion and endocytosis
* Protein turnover (e.g., proteosomes, lysosomes, damaged protein response)
5. Cell Division, Differentiation and Development
* Cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis
* Meiosis and gametogenesis
* Fertilization and early embryonic development (including positional information, homeotic genes, tissue-specific expression, nuclear and cytoplasmic interactions, growth factors and induction, environment, stem cells and polarity)

*III. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS — 36%*

1. Genetic Foundations
* Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance
* Transformation, transduction and conjugation
* Recombination and complementation
* Mutational analysis
* Genetic mapping and linkage analysis
2. Chromatin and Chromosomes
* Karyotypes
* Translocations, inversions, deletions and duplications * Aneuploidy and polyploidy
* Structure
* Epigenetics
3. Genomics
* Genome structure
* Physical mapping
* Repeated DNA and gene families
* Gene identification
* Transposable elements
* Bioinformatics
* Proteomics
* Molecular evolution
4. Genome Maintenance
* DNA replication
* DNA damage and repair
* DNA modification
* DNA recombination and gene conversion
5. Gene Expression
* The genetic code
* Transcription/transcriptional profiling
* RNA processing
* Translation
6. Gene Regulation
* Positive and negative control of the operon
* Promoter recognition by RNA polymerases
* Attenuation and antitermination
* Cis-acting regulatory elements
* Trans-acting regulatory factors
* Gene rearrangements and amplifications
* Small non-coding RNA (e.g., siRNA, microRNA)
7. Viruses
* Genome replication and regulation
* Virus assembly
* Virus-host interactions
8. Methods
* Restriction maps and PCR
* Nucleic acid blotting and hybridization
* DNA cloning in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
* Sequencing and analysis
* Protein-nucleic acid interaction
* Transgenic organisms
* Microarrays

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

war boost oil price

Middle East wars boost oil prices according to "Chart of the Day" below. China gets most oil from the middle east and Russia so is more vulnerable than USA. http://rt.com/business/china-us-oil-october-379/ Would Obama want to help Russia?

Texas will benefit as oil prices go higher. Would Obama want to help Texas?

Gas prices were going down but now they are going up again due to Syria. Higher fuel costs feed into inflation that will raise interest rates and hurt the stock and bond market. Would Obama want to hurt Wall Street and rich bankers? Obama needs tax money from the rich to finance Obama-care.

Wars and inflation may help gold and silver recover some of the recent losses. Would Obama want to help rich bankers who bought up a lot of gold, now stored in warehouses? Steve Forbes was saying to buy gold in his magazine. Is Obama proving Steve Forbes right? And the other gold bulls? Why would Obama help the gold bulls?

Is Obama intent on regime change in Syria -- installing a Muslim fundamentalist government or Al-Queda that would endanger Israel? Is Obama an anti-Jew Muslim or Christian?

http://www.chartoftheday.com

Today's chart illustrates that most oil price spikes coincided with Middle East crises and often preceded or coincided with a US recession. The logic behind this is that a Middle East crisis can potentially disrupt an already tight oil supply and thereby drive crude oil prices higher. Also, rising oil / energy prices can, among other things, increase costs within the global economy's supply / distribution chain and thereby contribute to inflation which can in turn encourage governments to halt or reduce any plans to stimulate the economy. As a result of a slowing global economy as well as increased global oil production, crude oil prices have declined over 20% since early May alone.

rich 1% spend bonus on inflated Geneva Mansions. Now deflating as Tax Scares Expats

In times of war and turmoil, Switzerland has often been safer and/or neutral. After the crash of 2008, smart bankers took their money and ran -- retired rich in Europe and are living in Swiss mansions, skiing the Swiss Alps, eating Swiss cheese, wearing Swiss Rolex, and driving Audi, BMW, Benz, Porsche... Your tax bailout money in action! Swiss luxury prices have been inflating while at the same time USA has been deflating. Finally the trends may be reversing. Higher taxes on the rich are deflating luxury Swiss house prices as described in the article below, while USA house prices are inflating.

Obama has not done much to take inflation from the rich and give it to the poor. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the March on Washington by Martin Luther King, Obama should tax the rich to give some inflation to the poor negroes in the USA.

FBI wiretaps: a memo titled "Negro Question," the FBI said this about King: "He stands head and shoulders above all other Negro leaders put together when it comes to influencing great masses of Negroes. We must mark him now, if we have not done so before, as the most dangerous Negro of the future in this Nation." That memo was dated Aug. 30, 1963 — two days after the March on Washington. All these years later, Jones is actually grateful for those wiretaps. Thanks to the FBI, he has a vast — and accurate — archive of the time. Click here to read a page of the original memo: http://www.npr.org/2013/08/27/214224111/clarence-b-jones-a-guiding-hand-behind-i-have-a-dream

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-08-26/geneva-mansions-sell-at-discount-as-tax-scares-expats.html Geneva Mansions Sell at Discount as Tax Scares Expats. Real estate broker Koch de Gooreynd relayed a difficult message to a client last June: the $43 million asking price for his eight-bedroom lakefront villa in Geneva was too high. The 8,600 square-foot home with yacht mooring, wine cellar and kennels in Collonge-Bellerive, where Saudi Arabiaâs King Fahd built a summer palace in the 1970s, had been on the market for nine months. The seller took his advice and the house sold for 31.5 million francs in December.

Geneva luxury-home prices, among the highest in the country, are tumbling as buyers are spooked by proposals to end tax breaks for foreign millionaires and the number of multinationals moving to the city slows. Houses in Geneva worth at least 6 million francs have declined by as much as 25 percent in the past 12 months I have never known a slump like this before

Geneva, less than a two-hour drive from the ski resorts of Chamonix and Verbier, has used low taxes, political stability and quality of life to lure more than 900 multinationals, including Procter & Gamble, commodity traders such as Gunvor SA and hedge fund managers, Brevan Howard and Blue Crest Capital Management. In 2009, Dinara Kulibayeva, second daughter of Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev and the billionaire owner of Halyk Savings Bank, bought a house in the Geneva suburb of Anieres for a record 74.7 million francs.

Wealthy foreigners were also drawn to Geneva by a 150-year-old tax break that enables them to avoid paying income tax via an expenditure-based levy known as a forfait. Genevaâs Socialist Party in January 2012 submitted the 10,000 signatures necessary to force a vote on abolishing the program. After Zurich became the first canton to abolish the forfait in 2009, with almost 53 percent voting against the system, 97 of the 201 beneficiaries of the tax left the canton.
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Tuesday, August 27, 2013

UCB Professor John Kelley, Smale Sphere Eversion, Largest Prime Number.

Did you know Professor John Kelley at Berkeley? I sat in one of his classes once-- a booming, powerful speaker. He was a topologist. I sat in UCB Prof Smale's classes several times. He won the Fields medal for the topology theorem that it is possible to turn a sphere inside out. I have been looking for decades and finally found a good but tedious visualization of that theoremon Youtube below. I used to be interested in Topology, but it is too late to pursue. Another math item: Last week I was in the building where the largest prime number so far was recently discovered. I am even more interested in computational number theory and intend to do a lot of it. Good to have contacts nearby.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_L._Kelley
John L. Kelley (December 6, 1916, Kansas) was an American mathematician at University of California, Berkeley who worked in general topology and functional analysis.Kelley's 1955 text, General Topology, which eventually appeared in three editions and several translations, is a classic and widely cited graduate level introduction to topology. From 1942 to 1945, he did mathematics (mainly exterior ballistics, including ballistics for the atomic bomb) for the war effort at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, where his work unit included his future Berkeley colleagues Anthony Morse and Charles Morrey. After teaching at the University of Chicago, 1946–47, Kelley spent the rest of his career at Berkeley

http://www.ucmo.edu/math-cs/prime.cfmUniversity of Central Missouri Researchers Find Largest Prime Number. The discovery of the new number was made as UCM faculty members joined about 21,000 other researchers worldwide to participate in the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS).9.1-Million Digit Number Claims Latest Award. UCM's research team, led by professors Curtis Cooper, computer science, and Steven Boone, chemistry, has come the closest to claiming the award with the discovery of a 9.1 million-digit number expressed as M30402457, or 2 to the 30,402,457th power minus 1.It is the largest known prime number found since the discovery of a 7.8 million-digit prime by GIMPS in February 2005. UCM's discovery was made using a free GIMPS software program that ran on and off for about 50 days.

war, quakes, sinkholes, bugs, crime, animals, plants, oxygen

If Obama wastes money on a war in the middle east he will use up money that he needs for Obama-care, welfare, medicaid, negro education, and other liberal projects. He will deflate the USA poor and inflate the middle east.

Missouri has sinkholes but they rarely cause much damage http://ksmu.org/article/your-home-sitting-ozarks-sinkhole-56374

More dangerous are trees all over the place than can fall on your house or car. But trees give of oxygen that prevents cancer and is needed by all animals for life.

I drove by several operating and decommissioned nuclear power plants the past 2 weeks. They can have accidents or can be impacted by earthquakes or other natural disasters. But not many people live very close.

Missouri has ticks, chiggers, mosquitoes, biting flies, snakes and large cats. These are part of the healthy ecosystem. If you have a good environment you get a lot of life: plant, herbivore, carnivore, all eating each other or defending from the other.

There is crime although most of that is in the black ghettos in the large cities or barrios with illegals from California.

Missouri Arkansas does have have a few quakes but most may be due to fracking as discussed in the Reuters article below. The New Madrid Missouri Earthquake fault may be overblown by the rich 1% who want to scare away the poor 99% from the best place to hide out in a catastrophe. Also Government wants to scare sheeple into giving the government more power and money to protect them. Scientists have "reported in the journal Science and in other journals that the New Madrid system may be "shutting down" and that tectonic stress may now be accumulating elsewhere." Missouri faults were moving at no more than 0.2 millimeters a year. The rate of slip on the San Andreas Fault averages up to 37 mm a year across California http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Madrid_Seismic_Zone#Potential_for_future_earthquakes

Overall much less problems than California. It is easy to get comfortable here.

Latino arrested in 2012 rape on University of Arkansas campus; DNA links illegal Mexican to attack http://bit.ly/18WXfTe%0A

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/08/27/us-usa-energy-quakes-insight-idUSBRE97Q05N20130827

Millions of gallons of wastewater are typically trucked from the fracking site to the well site, where they are injected thousands of feet underground into porous rock layers, often for weeks or months at a time. Seismologists say fracking can cause tiny "micro earthquakes" that are rarely felt on the surface. The process of disposing of the wastewater, though, can trigger slightly larger quakes when water is pumped near an already stressed fault, even one that hasn't moved in millions of years, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. Only a handful of the 30,000 injection wells across the country have been suspected of causing earthquakes, the U.S. Geological Survey has said. That rare event likely happened in central Arkansas,
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Monday, August 26, 2013

Republican Democrat Yellen Inflation Abortion Shotgun weddings

Republicans favor bankers who want to hoard money in the banks and pay themselves fat salaries and bonuses. Some of that may trickle down to the poor 99% and cause inflation for what the poor 99% buy. But mostly bankers want to inflate themselves and deflate the poor, depriving them of food and medical care so they will have more money for themselves. Deflation would mean that the poor would have to pay back loans with more valuable dollars. Summers is probably more favored by the Republicans although he is a Democrat, protege of Robert Rubin Bill Clinton who dumped Glass Steagall and other regulations so bankers could get rich off deregulation, derivatives, robo-signings, frauds, scams, bubbles, crashes, bailouts...

Republicans also often support stronger military actions in the middle east so as to give money to the military-industrial complex that pays to elect Republican politicians. Democrats would prefer to give that money out as welfare to the poor. Libertarians are usually opposed to expensive wars so as to save money as principle. Libertarians are common in the military so Libertarians will get shot if there is a war.

Democrats support expensive Obama Care that will help poor people get medical care that will kill them or make them sick (Democrats are not smart).

Democrats support more college loans so poor kids can go to college even though they do not learn much in college and they will be saddled with debts that take decades to pay off. If Democrats were smarter they would get those less capable kids into paying jobs with little or no time wasted in colleges.

Democrats favor the poor 99% who want more money such as monetized deficits, even bigger deficits than what Obama has run already. This would give them more money and inflation but at least they will have more money to buy things. Even better inflation will clobber the rich 1% who hold most paper assets. Stocks and bonds will price collapse as interest rates and inflation rises. Krugman has critisized Obama for not running a big enough deficit. As a percent of the economy, the deficit was much larger in the WWII era.

Yellen has come out publically for more inflation. She wrote some worthless articles with her Nobel price winning husband back in the 1980s such as the following:

This paper relates the erosion of the custom of shotgun marriage to the legalization of abortion and the increased availability of contraception to unmarried women in the United States. The decline in shotgun marriage accounts for a significant fraction of the increase in out-of-wedlock first births. Several models illustrate the analogy between women who do not adopt either birth control or abortion and the hand-loom weavers, both victims of changing technology. Mechanisms causing female immiseration are modeled and historically described. This technology-shock hypothesis is an alternative to welfare and job-shortage theories of the feminization of poverty.

Yahoo! rebounding strong. Technology. Marissa Mayer

Excellent long article about the new ceo of Yahoo! and some of the politics of the big internet companies. Made some big technical changes very fastunder the personal direction of the most beautiful and one of the smartest leaders in Silicon Valley.

I may go back and try to use my yahoo email address that I have had for over 15 years but never really used. Freemail was great when it first came out. But it is getting replaced by social media, Facebook, Twitter, Tumbler that are more effective. I am moving away from email.

I am also looking at Yahoo news and weather. Yahoo is emphasizing mobile so I will try Yahoo News and weather my ipod and my computer. With so much choice in free services I am getting pickier and pickier. I must simplify everything to get more work done. Can waste a lot of time on just learning stuffto stay current.

I gave up on Yahoo back in the 1990s, like when Google came out. Looks like Yahoo is coming back strong,growing fastagain! Google is strong and useful and fought the Federal Government in court to protect users privacy when Obama came asking for too much information.

I am trying to cancel my Microsoft hotmail account but their server is down! Microsoft has big problems so Ballmer resigned. Microsoft better keep Windows XP forever, their last solid useful OS. Or make anything new look and act functional like Windows XP.

*http://www.businessinsider.com/marissa-mayer-biography-2013-8*

Sunday, August 25, 2013

QE Finance. Deficits. Inflation

The attached chart shows decades of large federal deficits. To some extent these were monetized by the Federal Reserve, thereby keeping interest rates low enough to allow bubbles in asset prices and huge trade deficits with vast quantities of imported goods sold in big box stores at low prices keeping inflation low. And USA imported millions of illegal Mexicans to build houses in Phoenix, Las Vegas,... and ghettos and barrios.

At the same time a vast army of MBA's were trained in finance at great cost to manage the import bubble, bubbles. Below is an old text that used to be cheaper than Calculus texts but now costs twice as much (for much fewer pages and simpler material). Many math and science majors were lured into finance. At the same time USA imports math and science majors and teachers and engineers. As a result Industrial Production has only doubled since 1980 which is 2% growth per annum ln(2)/33=0.02100446001 USA was the world's manufacturing powerhouse 50 years ago but now imports more than it exports. Imports BMW Audi VW Benz Maserati for overpaid finance MBAs.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_of_Business_Administration#MBA_degree_and_current_financial_crisis
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Academy-Educational-Leadership-Journal/229228144.html

QE1 QE2 QE3 are just the latest episodes in the ongoing disequilibrium trend. Bankers are happy -- they get lots of money to give themselves bonuses, vacation, travel, fat salaries, drugs,... As long as this money goes to rich bankers, they can spend it overseas or luxury items that do not get into the CPI so no inflation will materialize.

The economy has been out of equilibrium for decades. The disequilibrium trend may at some point reverse -- increased inflation, asset price collapse, decreased imports, decreased illegal immigrants, fast production growth. However it is hard to say just when or if this will occur. The economy may stay out of equilibrium for decades more. Economic forecasting is nearly impossible so most do not attempt it except for bloggers and talking heads who nobody pays attention to enough to check their forecasts for accuracy.

Janet Yellen is a liberal Democrat appointed by Obama who wants to elect Hillary Clinton in 2016. Obama needs to continue the current economic expansion to pay for Obama Care and to make a good appearance for Hillary 2016 and the Democrats in the 2014 midterm election. Probably Yellen or Summers will continue enough stimulus to elect Hillary Clinton but not so much stimulus so as to cause much inflation or reduce unemployment too fast, causing a boom that may bust before the election. Slow steady recovery is what they probably want. I would guess Yellen would lean toward more inflation with Summers leaning more toward deflation.

However, war, fires, drought, or some other crisis may ruin the economy and lose the election for the democrats and Hillary Clinton.



PhDProgramNewsletterAugust2012.pdf
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Saturday, August 24, 2013

Computer Security Crisis "Federal Cloud Credential Exchange"

Bob,

It is better than password + your dog's name. But it is obsolete and won't work to protect veterans or others. SecureKey is sold by RSA that got their own internal computers hacked! It does not verify the computer, the human, the wires, or the TCP/IP packets. RSA has political connections to force huge sales of the little gizmo paid for by taxpayers or consumers. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSA_(security_firm)#Security_breach

TPM would help, and will be supported in Microsoft Windows 8.1 described in: http://insights.wired.com/profiles/blogs/the-scandal-of-computer-security

Serious systems should use biometrics including fingerprints, facial recognition, retina scan. Biometrics will be commonplace before the government can distribute the RSA hardware gizmo. But biometrics is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle and other attacks. TPM is more for business than consumers which is why they went to the dongle instead. But they should add biometrics, at least.

I describe a better method in my forthcoming book. I have not seen anything like it.

Joe

Bob wrote:
>
> Just gotta get that “mark” in there somehow. Learned yesterday that RFIDs are now being made that don’t need a local scanner. They can and are powered by ambient fields, cell/radio/TV etc. >
> Ditch Your Passwords -- US Gov To Issue Secure Online IDs
>
> SecureKey, based in Toronto, today announced it has been awarded a contract by the USPS to provide a cloud-based authentication infrastructure. >
> Get ready for a new set of abbreviations. This is part of some federal programs that have been underway for several years, mostly below the radar — at least this is the first I have heard of it despite being an avid reader of tech publications. But apparently a lot of people have been working on this — some of the relevant Web sites and information sources are listed below. >
> The Federal Cloud Credential Exchange (FCCX) is designed to enable individuals to securely access online services —such as health benefits, student loan information, and retirement benefit information—at multiple federal agencies without the need to use a different password or other digital identification for each service. The first federal agency to use it will be the Veterans Administration. >
> SecureKey already operates a trusted identity service in Canada. Andre Boysen, chief marketing officer for SecureKey Technologies, said that Canadians using identification keys provided by one of five participating Canadian banks, can connect with 120 government programs online with no additional user names or passwords for everything from benefits queries to fishing licenses. He compared the identification network concept to payment networks. >
> “Like payment networks, you have providers and subscribers, and it provides an easier way for consumers to get benefits.” he said. “The challenge for governments is they can’t authenticate because they can’t see the users.” >
> This is part of implementing President Obama’s National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) and the federal government’s policies and procedures under its Identity, Credential and Access Management (ICAM) program. >
> The identity gurus have an active organization and Web site at www.idecosystem.org which posted this note: >
> “The National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC), signed by the President in April 2011, states, ‘A secure cyberspace is critical to our prosperity.’ This powerful declaration makes clear that securing cyberspace is absolutely essential to increasing the security and privacy of transactions conducted over the Internet. The Identity Ecosystem envisioned in the NSTIC is an online environment that will enable people to validate their identities securely, but with minimized disclosure of personal information when they are conducting transactions.” >
> For more information on NSTIC and ICAM go to nist.gov/nstic/ or idmanagement.gov/approved-identity-providers. > SecureKey is also in pilots with government organizations in the UK.
> SecureKey said it was chosen by the USPS for its innovative federated authentication platform, SecureKey briidge.net Exchange. This cloud-based authentication and credential brokerage service is at the heart of the Federal credential program, enabling it to easily and cost-effectively broker user credential management capabilities instead of having to create and manage an authentication infrastructure robust enough to handle tens of millions of citizens by itself. >
> The cloud-based service follows federal guidelines to protect privacy, said SecureKey, although exactly what that means after the Snowden revelations is not clear. The credential exchange will be designed to transmit credential information securely without knowing users’ actual identities. It will also limit the ability of third-party credential providers and the federal agencies relying on their credentials to track citizens’ transactions among agencies. >
> The SecureKey program is designed to connect identity providers—such as banks, governments, healthcare organizations, and others—with consumers’ favorite online services though a cloud-based broker service. The platform allows identity providers and online services to integrate once, reducing the integration and business complexity otherwise incurred in establishing many-to-many relationships. The company said it reduces credential management costs for online service providers, while removing user sign-up barriers, preserving user privacy, and providing convenience. >
> One agency that could see large benefits is the IRS. A study (http://www.nist.gov/director/planning/upload/report13-2.pdf) by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) estimated >
> Boysen said the IRS is a great example of the value of a single user credential usable across multiple agencies. Most people interact with the IRS just once a year, so remembering a user name and password would be difficult. Meanwhile the IRS estimates it loses $5 billion a year to fraud such as paying out rebates to stolen identities. >
> By using third-party authentication like SecureKey rather than developing its own program, the IRS would save $40 million to $111 million in adoption costs and another $2 million to $19 million in annual maintenance costs, the study estimates. >
> The study did not claim it would save the IRS from identity fraud but said it would make it much easier for the agency to identify citizens and exchange information with them without subjecting them to identity theft. Identity theft affected over 8 million Americans and cost over $30 billion, according to a 2011 Javelin study. >
> “Public and private sector organizations are spending billions of dollars trying to prevent unauthorized access to their IT systems and to mitigate the damage when unauthenticated access occurs.” >
> The study said users are tired of all the requests for registration from Web sites. One report found that 77 percent of users change their behavior when asked to register online, with 60 percent leaving the site. >
> “Beyond being frustrating to internet users, this situation also represents a loss of business for companies.” >
> The UAE has a similar program to develop secure IDs for its citizens. I wrote about it for Banking Technology magazine (http://www.bankingtech.com/142841/identity-and-mobile-figure-large-at-payments-and-cards-event/)after a conference in Dubai earlier this year. >
>

European history, dairy, cheese, fat sources

I feel sorry for the races that can't digest dairy products. Past 3 years I learned that dairy fat is healthy so I can indulge in my favorite foods. It is also great for losing weight around the waist. Sugar and starches spike insulin that causes fat storage, unfortunately in the worst places. Some people look ok but have fat around their internal organs. Chinese use pork as a source of fat instead of dairy. Eskimos use seal blubber and salmon. Thai and Pilipino also use a lot of coconut oil that is highly saturated and reputedly even healthier. Hawaii and Australia produces macadamia nuts that are the lowest protein, highest fat with more monosaturated fat than other seeds. Many good sources of fat. I use mostly dairy and nuts because I am too impatient to catch fish and lobster.

http://www.nature.com/news/archaeology-the-milk-revolution-1.13471

the profound ways that dairy products have shaped human settlement on the continent. During the most recent ice age, milk was essentially a toxin to adults because — unlike children — they could not produce the lactase enzyme required to break down lactose, the main sugar in milk. But as farming started to replace hunting and gathering in the Middle East around 11,000 years ago, cattle herders learned how to reduce lactose in dairy products to tolerable levels by fermenting milk to make cheese or yogurt. Several thousand years later, a genetic mutation spread through Europe that gave people the ability to produce lactase — and drink milk — throughout their lives. That adaptation opened up a rich new source of nutrition that could have sustained communities when harvests failed.

This two-step milk revolution may have been a prime factor in allowing bands of farmers and herders from the south to sweep through Europe and displace the hunter-gatherer cultures that had lived there for millennia. “They spread really rapidly into northern Europe from an archaeological point of view,” says Mark Thomas, a population geneticist at University College London. That wave of emigration left an enduring imprint on Europe, where, unlike in many regions of the world, most people can now tolerate milk. “It could be that a large proportion of Europeans are descended from the first lactase-persistent dairy farmers in Europe,”

Young children produce lactase and can digest the lactose in their mother's milk. But as they mature, most switch off the lactase gene. Only 35% of the human population can digest lactose beyond the age of about seven or eight. “If you're lactose intolerant and you drink half a pint of milk, you're going to be really ill. Explosive diarrhoea — dysentery essentially,” says Oliver Craig, an archaeologist at the University of York, UK. “I'm not saying it's lethal, but it's quite unpleasant.”

dairying in the Middle East may go all the way back to when humans first started domesticating animals there, about 10,500 years ago6. That would place it just after the Middle Eastern Neolithic transition — when an economy based on hunter-gathering gave way to one devoted to agriculture. Dairying, says Roz Gillis, also an archaeozoologist at the Paris museum, “may have been one of the reasons why human populations began trapping and keeping ruminants such as cattle, sheep and goats”. Dairying then expanded in concert with the Neolithic transition. who has looked at bone growth at 150 sites in Europe and Anatolia (modern Turkey). As agriculture spread from Anatolia to northern Europe over roughly two millennia, dairying followed a similar pattern. Given that dairying in the Middle East started thousands of years before the LP allele emerged in Europe, ancient herders must have found ways to reduce lactose concentrations in milk. It seems likely that they did so by making cheese or yogurt. (Fermented cheeses such as feta and cheddar have a small fraction of the lactose found in fresh milk; aged hard cheeses similar to Parmesan have hardly any.)

around 5,000 years ago, the LP allele was prevalent across most of northern and central Europe, and cattle herding had become a dominant part of the culture. “They discover this way of life, and once they can really get the nutritional benefits they increase or intensify herding as well,” says Burger. Cattle bones represent more than two-thirds of the animal bones in many late Neolithic and early Bronze Age archaeological sites in central and northern Europe.

why the ability to consume milk offered such an advantage in these regions. Thomas suggests that, as people moved north, milk would have been a hedge against famine. Dairy products — which could be stored for longer in colder climes — provided rich sources of calories that were independent of growing seasons or bad harvests. Others think that milk may have helped, particularly in the north, because of its relatively high concentration of vitamin D, a nutrient that can help to ward off diseases such as rickets. Humans synthesize vitamin D naturally only when exposed to the sun, which makes it difficult for northerners to make enough during winter months.
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California welfare money for marijuana growing

California is going to the dogs. Wasted of tax money that causes deflation in marijuana prices. 150 Marijuana plants are worth about $150,000 harvested several times per year maybe $600,000 income plus they collect welfare. Of course they don't pay taxes. Humboldt hippies live high off the hog while promoting liberal causes. Same is true elsewhere. Other hippies are destroying the environment growing marijuana in the National forests, using chemicals to kill off animals and pests.

http://humboldtsentinel.com/category/crime/ Marijuana Growers Lay Waste to Eastern Humboldt enough poison to kill thousands of animals, and 16,000 marijuana plants were discovered in the wake of three recent marijuana growing operations found in Eastern Humboldt, the HCSO said yesterday. four day effort and what the Sheriff’s officers found

Grow House Was Getting PG&E’s CARE Discount For 15X Energy Use

Nicholas Jackson and Sarah Keeble with a statue of Jerry Garcia at McMenamin's Edgefield Hotel in Oregon last October. The Sunny Brae residents are enrolled in PG&E's CARE program, which offers a roughly 50 percent discount for low-income ratepayers' electricity bill. Facebook photo CARE Program participants Nicholas Jackson and Sarah Keeble with a statue of Jerry Garcia at McMenamin’s Edgefield Hotel in Oregon last October. Facebook photo

City of Arcata

PRESS RELEASE

Officers from the Arcata Police Department’s Special Services Unit served a search warrant at a residence in the 200 block of Beverly Court on Thursday morning, Aug. 8.

Upon entering the residence, officers located a marijuana growing operation encompassing the garage area of the home.

Officers seized nearly 150 growing marijuana plants, approximately 11pounds of processed marijuana bud, and nearly $6,000 in cash.

The growing operation that was being conducted inside the home consisted of 16 1,000-watt grow lights and was utilizing nearly 15 times the electricity of a typical Arcata family home.

Records indicated the residents were currently enrolled in the PG&E CAREprogram for low-income families.

Nicholas Jackson, 31, and Sarah Keeble, 24, both of Arcata, were arrested and booked into the Humboldt County Jail on the following charges:

· 11358 Health & Safety (H&S)- Cultivation of Marijuana

· 11359 H&S- Possession of Marijuana for Sale

e

City of Arcata building inspectors discovered numerous building code violations at the residence which necessitated the immediate disconnection of electrical service.